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Tropical Ocean Biome

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Elena Zipp

on 11 February 2014

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Transcript of Tropical Ocean Biome

Tropical Oceans
By Jane Bothwell, Ellen Jorgensen, and Elena Zipp
Examples of Tropical Oceans
Indian Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
scientific name:
Macrosmia, phalacra
found 5,410 to 5,450 feet underwater in the Ninety East Ridge of the East Indian Ocean
"strum" their gas bladder to make a noise used to find a mate
small bodies which thin out into a small tail, where the name “rattail” comes from
Sea Lettuce
Scientific name is
Ulva, lactuca
Type of seaweed found in Indian Ocean and every other ocean in the world
Edible, eaten by many animals including manatees, sea slugs, and humans
High in protein, and minerals, especially iron
Grows on gravel, and on rocky bottoms in the ocean
Can also live in shallow pools which do not get very much fresh water
Can live in high and low intertidal zones, and water up to 75 feet deep
Very hardy and can grow where other plants cannot, like in polluted areas
Grows in large numbers
Attaches to rocks and shells, or is found free floating
Sea lettuce is present year round
Fun Facts!
Sea lettuce is eaten in Scandinavia, Great Britain, Ireland, China, and Japan in soups and raw salads. It is also used in ice cream, and medicine. Sea lettuce is translucent, and is only two cell layers thick.
Shoal Grass
Scientific name is
Halodule, wrightii

Very much like regular grass
Blades are stiff and flat, measuring from 1 1/2 to 13 inches long, about 1/10 inch wide
Grows on thin stems that branch off into thin leaves
Lives in places with high salinity/wave action, where other grasses such as turtle grass, and manatee grass cannot live
Grows in sand of intertidal zones and in mud under water up to a depth of about 40 feet
Horizontal stems called rhizomes, enable them to deal with the tugging of currents and waves
Roots grow down from rhizome to anchor plant to the seabed
Flexible blades grow straight up and bend to current without resistance
Helps grass survive in areas in the ocean with extreme environment
Fun Facts!
Shoal grass can grow in areas that are too shallow for other grasses. It often grows near manatee and turtle grasses. Shoal grass can grow in areas up to 12 meters deep.
Scientific name is
Gonyaulax, spinifera
Common name is phytoplankton
Lives in shallower part of ocean because it needs sunlight
Needs sunlight to produce food through photosynthesis
Does not require true roots, stems, or leaves, because can absorb water and nutrients directly from environment
Instead of leaves and blades, they have developed numerous pores and spines
The development of pores and spines increases surface area of plant body reduces sinking, helps the absorbs nutrients, and increases exposure to sunlight for photosynthesis
Single celled which requires fewer nutrients
Complex shape increases surface area with spines and bristles
Transparent and barely visible to predators
Thermal Vents
Usually about 2,700 meters below the surface.
Release black or white smoke into the ocean.
Heated geothermally
Commonly known as black smokers
In area of a thermal vent there is more life and it is biologically more productive than other ocean areas
Found about 7,000 feet or 2700 meters under the ocean's surface on the sea floor
Organisms in the area count on energy of thermal vents to survive. Some of these organisms include snails, shrimp, crab, tube worms, fish, and octopuses.
sea cow
scientific name:
Dugong, dugon.
• eats sea grass but when there is not enough, eats marine algae
lives in shallow water at around 10 meters deep
sometimes will travel 39 meters deep to look for food
•female dugongs have tusks to protect their incisor teeth
• found in groups from 2-200
•sometimes migrates long distances to find sea grass beds
Fun Fact!
The dugong is often confused with the manatee.
The dugong is an endangered marine species.
Fun Facts:
Phyloplankton produces roughly half of the oxygen on Earth and plays a large part in softening the blow of climate change by absorbing large amounts of carbon dioxide.
Deep sea organisms can survive without sunlight especially around thermal vents
Bacteria forms around thermal vents that can use the resources that the thermal vent provides
The process of the bacteria obtaining energy without photosynthesis is called chemosynthesis
Chemosynthesis is the process that certain bacteria go through to create energy without light
This bacteria provides resources for other organisms
Then other organisms join and it soon becomes an ecosystem.

Great White Shark

The great white shark was what Jaws was based on, but humans are actually not what great white sharks prefer to eat.
To find a mate, they release chemicals. Each type of shark has a different chemical.
lives in the coastal and offshore waters next to continental shelves
prefers water that is 53-75 degrees Fahrenheit
sometimes found in waters 1,280 meters deep
scientific name:
Carcharodon, carcharias
20 feet long and 5,000 pounds
eats fish and seabirds
has the most attacks on humans out of all animals
changes body temperature because of closely woven veins and arteries that keeps them warmer than the water that they are swimming in
Environmental Threats to the Indian Ocean
Acid Rain
- rain that contains harmful levels of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxide. Is damaging and sometimes deadly to the earth's ecosystems.
To fix this problem, humans can use greener sources of energy and use resources carefully and sparingly.
Metallurgical plants
- factories which processes metals. Produce highly toxic wastes which can help create pollution of water and air when they are not gotten rid of in the right way.
To help dissolve this problem, humans must start to make plants using greener energy and move the plants farther away from the ocean.
Water borne diseases
- bacteria from the diseases that are sent through water. Always a serious threat in areas that don't have a treated water supply. Can weaken and kill many animals, including humans.
Water purifiers help to prevent these diseases if they are sold at a reasonable price in the contaminated area.
Fun Fact!
Female Rattails produce over 100,000 eggs!
Fun Fact!
The dugong is very similar to the manatee.
Class VI-Z
May 16, 2013
Zones in the Indian Ocean

The inter-tidal zone
The pelagic zone or the ocean waters
euphotic or sunlit zone
disphotic or twilight zone
aphotic or midnight zone
The benthic zone
The abyssal zone
The main zones in the Indian Ocean are:
Halodule, wrightii
Gonyaulax, spinifera
Ulva, lactuca
Plants in the Indian Ocean
Dugong, dugon
(Carcharodon, carcharias)
Macrosmia, phalacra
Animals in the Indian Ocean
Acid Rain
Metallurgical Plants
Water Borne Diseases
The inter-tidal zone
Temperature- it can be anywhere from freezing to burning
Coral reefs are found here. Next to the corals, there are sea stars, sea urchins, fish, invertebrates, and microorganisms.
Salinity- it varies throughout the year
Light penetration- there is a lot of light penetration here
The pelagic zone
euphotic or sunlit zone
temperature- average 104-27 degrees Fahrenheit
Sharks, jellyfish, turtles and seals are found here
Salinity- it varies throughout the year
Light penetration- enough light travels into this zone so that it is the only place where photosynthesis can occur
dysphotic or twilight zone
Temperature- 41-30 degrees Fahrenheit
octopus, no plants, squid, hatchet fish
Salinity- it varies throughout the year
Light penetration- only some light can come into this zone but not enough for plants to grow here.
aphotic or midnight zone
Temperature-32-43 degrees Fahrenheit
no plants, some animals don't have eyes, invertebrates, fish, hydrothermal vents,
Salinity- it varies throughout the year
Light penetration- there is very little light penetration in this zone
The benthic zone
Temperature- it decreases as it gets deeper toward the abyssal zone
Silt, sand, and decomposing organisms
Salinity- it varies throughout the year
Light penetration- there is a very small amount of light penetration
The abyssal zone
Temperature- 35.6-37.4 degrees Fahrenheit
Invertebrates, fish, and coelacanths are found in this area. The coelacanth is a big, marine fish.
Salinity- it varies throughout the year
Light penetration- there is no light penetration here.

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