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The Flute 2.0
Transcript of The Flute 2.0
By: Jess Gilchrist
The History of the Flute: towards a transverse flute
The first 'flute' was found in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in 1998. It was carved 50,000 years ago out of the femur, or thigh bone, of a cave bear.
Art work dating to 300 BCA shows
hollowed out bones or sticks being
They were used for magical rituals and hunting
In 200 AD 'flutes' were popular with the Romans and Etruscans. They used the 'flute' to entertain royalty, for theatrical productions, and in festivals.
In 1300, the flute starts to appear in non-germanic countries such as France, Spain, and Flanders, the northern part of Belgium.
Around 1320, the one-piece, two inch, wooden flute was invented. This flute was in the key of "D"
In 1360 Eustache Deschamps suggested that the flute led a double life as a soft, indoor instrument, as well as a loud one with military connotations.
Prior to 1476, the flute was never used in the military, however in 1476, the Swiss military used the flute to defeat the supposedly invincible Burgundian cavalry. It was used along side a drum to signal precise movements to Swiss soldiers. Seeing as how effective this method was, other European countries soon copied the Swiss by using either the flute, or the fife, a short, shrill flute with six or more finger holes which was later replaced by the bugle in the 1800s.
In 1529 the descant,
In 1511, The Zwerchpheiff
was created. This flute
has six finger holes,
and has a narrower
flutes were created.
1636- transverse flutes
Flutes Allemands (German Flutes) also called Transversal flutes, were found in Germany, dating back to 1636. These flutes had keys for "D" and "G", were cylindrical, and made of wood.
Transverse flutes had six holes producing
a range of around two octaves. They were commonly seen in three or four sizes with fingering similar to the recorder. Because the tone of the upper register was not refined and cross-fingerings were necessary for chromatic tones, the flute started to be used less towards the end of the 17th century.
In 1670 Jean Hotteterre made
advancements to the flute.
-He made the flute into three
peices, the headjoint, middle joint
and foot joint
-Gave it a conical bore, the foot
joint of the flute was smallest in
-The six finger holes remained,
but they were smaller
- The first key was added. It produced an E-flat note
His flute is now known as the baroque flute.
1670- Baroque flute
History of the Flute: getting the keys right
In 1720 the middle joint was divided into two pieces; the extra joints of different length were called the 'corps de recharge'. The purpose of this new design was to allow the flute player to shift the pitch of the instrument to be in tune with the orchestra. The short and long bits could be adjusted to play higher or lower.
In 1722 Famous flutist Quantz added a tuning cork in the head joint, and a C# key on the foot joint.
In 1726 The E flat key added on foot joint
In the 1730s, the flute starts to appear more and more in opera music
In 1760, flute makers in London add three keys to the flute. The G#, B-flat, and F keys.
In 1774, flute makers in London remove C# key from the foot joint.
Around 1780 Mozart and Haydn composed music which features flutes. Flutes with four and six keys were featured in many symphonies.
In 1782, Maker J.H. Ribock added the closed C key
In 1779, the blind child prodigy Friedrich Ludwig Dülon began a famous career as a touring flute virtuoso
In 1800, a B-flat lever and left hand lever were added
In 1806 Claude Laurent made glass flutes with 3-7 keys each.
In 1808, Rev. Frederick Nolan invented open holes and connected the keys together
In 1810, Theobald boehm created his own model of the flute. He started experimenting with different keys, springs, and pads.
In 1822 the Nicholsons father and son adjusted the placement of keys, made the holes larger, and made a thinner flute.
In 1824, Maker Pottgiessen invented the ring and crescent keys, which he added to the flute.
In 1827 Rudall and Rose created an eight keyed flute.
Modern Glass flute
In 1829 Boehm creates his own fingering system. The fingering system used rods that connected the keys.
From 1830-1831 Boehm finished his new model and presented it in performance in London and Paris.
In 1832 Boehm was impressed by Nicholson's flute design, which produces a clearer tone, and switches to ring keys instead of open holes, thus improving the tone of his flutes. He also invented the thumb left hand crutch, which helped with finger action.
In 1838, Buffet and Coche add the D# key and the G# key.
From 1846 to 1847, Boehm made his flutes cylindrical and
enlarged the embouchure to produce fuller and clearer tone.
He modified the fingering system and experimented with different materials for making flutes. He decided that silver is the best, as it is light and produces the best tone.
In 1847, Rudall and Rose, Clair Godfroy and Louis Lot buy for rights to manufacture Boehm flutes from Boehm. Flutes are adopted as official orchestral instruments in the Paris conservatory.
In 1849, Composer Briccialdi adds the thumb B-flat key.
In 1878, Boehm finally
After Boehm finished his model, few modifications have been made,
including the duplicate G# key, the "Gizmo" key, and a tuning cork
accepted as the
The Different Types of Flutes
While the standard flute just explained is the most commonly known, the flute family varies quite a bit, and has some pretty quirky members, including....
The Tenor Flute
*made either in the key of B-flat or A.
*The tenor flute's pitch is either one whole step (B-flat flute) or a minor third (A flute) below the concert flute.
*Used In jazz
*made in the key of G
*found in flute choirs, jazz ensembles, orchestras and in solo pieces.
*Can have a U- shaped or straight head joint
There are about 3-4 bass flutes.
The bass flute
The Double Contrabass Flute
In the opposite direction: the piccolo
*1/2 the size of the standard flute
*used for special effects in orchestras but is more
widely used in concert
and marching band
The Big Deals
Johann Joachim Quantz
When Johann was in his early twenties, he took up the flute. Prior to that, the
recorder was the preferred instrument, however with the new-at-the-time transverse flute, Quantz saw many possibilities with the flute. With lots of
lessons and practice, Quantz became the first flutist in the Dresden court.
With the lack of compositions for the transverse flute, Quantz started to
compose pieces for it by studying pieces of others. Gradually, he became the
finest flutist in Europe.
He soon started touring Europe and the surrounding area to work and compare
with other composers. During a trip to Berlin in 1728, Quantz played for the
Crowned Prince of Prussia, Frederick. Frederick was so enchanted that he
immediately arranged Quantz to teach him the flute and so twice a year
Quantz would give a lesson to Frederick.
From 1741 to the end of his life, Quantz was composer and flute teacher of
Frederick the Great in Berlin and Potsdam. He gave regular flute lessons to the
king, directed and occasionally took part in the evening chamber concerts, and
composed new pieces.
Giulio Briccialdi was born in Termi, in 1818. After the death of his father, he went to Rome to avoid family pressure. In Rome he supported himself by playing the flute, while studying composition. In 1835, Briccialdi was teaching flute at the Academy of Santa Cecilia, and soon wound up in Naples as the flute teacher to the royal family. In 1849 he had the English flute makers Rudall and Rose add a lower key to Boehm’s improved cylindrical flute , which extended the range to B-flat.
One of his best works would
be 'Carnival of venice':
Famous Flutists Today
Ian Anderson is the flutist for rock band Jethro Tull. He is a self-taught flutist, and has brought a new side to flute playing by using it in a rock band, something previously unheard of.
Born in 1939, James Galway studied at London's Royal College of Music and Guildhall School before going on and establishing a solo career as a concert flutist. He is well known for his ability to combine classical, folk, and popular music traditions.
Nina Perlove, is a classical flutist who has won many competitions and been a part in many orchestras. However the thing that really sets her apart from other flutists of today, is that she makes videos that teach various flute methods and techniques.
comes nearest to expressing the inexpressible is music.
Music is well said to be the speech of angels.
So as you can see, the flute is relatively limitless. From military
bands to classical to rock, from entertaining neanderthals to being a member of a symphony, it fits in anywhere, any time and has been a part of humanity for many years past, and many years to come!
It took thousands of years to create the transverse flute, and another thousand to perfect the keys on the flute. Now, the flute itself is an art, a beautiful architectural design with a complex key system.
The flute comes in three parts:
The head piece is made up of a few different parts,
Inside, as previously mentioned, is a tuning cork. When positioned correctly, it helps achieve optimal tuning of the flute.
The mouthpiece, or
embouchure is probably
the most important
part, seeing as you won't
make much sound
without the part you
Similar to how you blow across a bottle's top, the flute makes sound when you blow air into the embouchure and the air hits back and forth against the sides of the flute.
The body has the majority of the keys. With the usage and combination of different keys the distance the air must travel will vary, and thus will
make the note lower or higher. The real beauty of
the flute is here, with the complexity of the keys.
For multiple keys, when you press one, both it
and another will close, as they are connected
through the the rods.
The flute has three keys on the foot joint all controlled by the pinky finger.
The first key opens the closed tone on the other side
The second key closes the first open tones
And the third key closes both of the open tones
By the end of his life,
he had composed over
300 flute concertos,
and 200 flute sonatas.
Fun Flute Facts
Flutes have been made out of
lots of different materials
throughout history including:
bone, wood, glass, ivory, plastic,
resin, brass, nickel silver, silver,
gold and platinum.
George Washington, James Madison and
Leonardo da Vinci all played the flute.
fourth president of the Us
First president of the US
painter, and architect.
The Double contrabass flute
is the largest member of the
flute family. It is pitched in
C, and plays four octaves
lower than the standard
symphonic flute. It measure
over 8 meters long and Its
lowest note is one C lower than the lowest C on the piano, even lower than what scientists consider the range of human hearing!
The first printed solo pieces for the transverse flute survived from the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th. Aurelio Virgiliano Il Dolcimelo, book 2 (c1600) contains Ricercate in the Italian division style for cornetto, violin, traversa and other instruments.
In Greek mythology there are
9 muses. they are the goddesses
of music, song and dance.
Euterpe was named Muse
of lyric poetry. She is usually portrayed with a double flute
the greek God Pan was the god of rustic music. His instrument was the pan pipes, played similarly to the flute as you blow across a hole to make sound, but with each note being its own tube.
The Flute is relatively limitless when it comes to genres and what bands they're included in
James Galway: Classic flutist
Greg, like Ian Anderson, took the flute, and did something never seen before. While he plays the flute, he adds in beat boxing, revealing another possibility on how you view and play the flute. In fact, in this video he beat boxes, plays the flute, and plays the piano!
Other places they're found: orchestras, marching bands, wind bands, and flute ensembles.