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The Crusades

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Raven Warford

on 28 April 2015

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Transcript of The Crusades

Late 1000s North African Muslims called Fatimids owned Jerusalem
Turkish Muslims also swept through south west Asia, taking control of Persia and other lands
First Crusade- 1096
Pope Urban II's Call
God Wills It!
Background: Who Controlled the Holy Land?
The Council of Clermont
Fighting the Crusades
Urban called leaders to a council in Clermont, France
Middle Ages, 1096-1272
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Understanding the Crusades
Second Crusade
The Crusades, a series of attempts to gain Christian control of the Holy Land, had profound economic, political, and social impact on the societies involved
Muslims began to recapture lands within a few years
The Crusades
What do you believe was considered the "Holy Land?"
Called on all Christian warriors, Knights, and nobles
Very Effective! By the 100s people volunteered
First Group
Peasants - Unskilled in war
Eager to fight non-Christians
slaughtered entire Jewish communities
Did not make it to Jerusalem
Fell quickly to the army of the Seljuk Turks
Second Group
Trained Knights
Somewhat better prepared
Looted towns to get needed supplies
After 3 yrs of traveling reached Jerusalem
Laid siege to several cities along the eastern Mediterranean
Created 4 states in Holy Land:
Centered on the cities of Jerusalem, Edessa, Antioch, and Tripoli-- Intended to be Christian strongholds against future Muslim conquests in the region.
1144 they took back the city of Edessa, the capital of one of the Crusader states
When European leaders heard, they called for the 2nd Crusade
King Louis VII of France & his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine
Launched in 1147, the 2nd Crusade was a failure
The Crusaders took no lands from teh Muslims and were forced to return to Europe empty-handed
Third Crusade
Led by King Richard the Lionhearted-King of England
Despite war, eventually they came to a truce with Saladin, leader of Muslims
Christians (unarmed) would be allowed in city
Effects of the Crusades
Economic Changes:
Trade enhanced
Crusaders brought even more goods - Spices and textiles to Europe
Increase in trade added to the changing European economy of the Middle Ages
Political Changes
Many knights & nobles died
Kings took control of unoccupied lands
thus gaining more power in Europe
Social Changes:
Knowledge of Muslim Culture
Christians who participated in Crusades grew to respect other cultures
Others, especially those who had not participated, became more intolerant
Many Europeans began to view all non-Christians as enemies
Led to an increase in persecution of Jews
Full transcript