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Philippine American War 1899-1902

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Anna J.

on 9 March 2013

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Transcript of Philippine American War 1899-1902

Svenja Gresch
Anna Lina Jankowski Philippine American War
1899 - 1902 Content Sources Location of Philippines
Initial situation of armed forces
The war
First phase
Second phase
Sources close to end of Spanish American War Emilio Aguinaldo back in Philippines
in the eyes of Filipinos: Filipinos (under Aguinaldo) with USA against Spain for independence
in the eyes of USA: support Filipinos against Spain BUT not in independence movement
relations between USA and rebel Filipino forces deteriorated rapidly Prehistory summer of 1898:
Manila had become point of rivalry that encompassed the European Powers
after Dewey's victory Manila Bay filled with warships from Britain, Germany, France and Japan
German fleet consisted of 8 ships protect German interests
provocative: cutting in front of US ships, refusing to salute to US flag (naval standard)
hungry for status symbol: build colonial empire eager to use any opportunity
Germany backed down to Dewey's bluff: US would start fighting if aggressive actions would be continued Prehistory US Department of State – Office of the Historian
Philippine-American War, 1899-1902 by Arnaldo Dumindin
US Library of Congress – Country Studies
Location 117 - 127 ° East
5 - 21 ° North
Pacific Ocean
consists of around 7,107 islands Prehistory secret agreement between USA and Spanish governor in 1898:
capture of Manila
no bombing Spanish would surrender
Spain would not have to give up without fighting but spared casualties
Mock battle was staged on August 13th 1898

Beginning: USA with Filipino rebels against Spain
End: USA with Spain against Filipino rebels Causes Spanish American War 1898 Spain lost
ceded colony of the Philippines to USA in Treaty of Paris
during negotiations for Treaty of Paris:
revolutionaries under Emilio Aguinaldo gained control of most of main island Luason
proclaimed establishment of independent Philippine Republic
USA decided to be colonial force so that on February 4th 1899 fighting between American forces and Filipino nationalists broke out
Filipinos wanted independence rather than change in colonial rulers
USA called war "insurrectionion" rather than acknowledging the Filipinos contention to fight off a foreign invader Initial situation of armed forces The war lasted from February 4th 1899 to July 4th 1902
war can be divided into two phases
first phase: February to November 1899
second phase: November 1899 to capture of Aguinaldo in 1901
US forces burned villages, implemented reconcentration policies, tortured suspected guerrillas
Filipinos tortured captured soldiers, terrorized civilians cooperating with Americans

many civilians dies because of fighting, malaria, cholera, food shortages, several agricultural catastrophes First phase dominated by Aguinaldo's ill-fated attempt to fight controversial war against better trained and equipped American troops
led to severe losses in men and material on Filipino side
Results 4000 American soldiers, 20000 Filipino soldiers died
plus another 200000 Filipino civilians died of violence, famine and disease

Even during fighting (1900)
Colonial government (under future US President William H. Taft) launched pacification campaign
Policy of attraction
Permitted significant degree of self-government, social reforms and plans for economic future
Win over key elites and other Filipinos who did not support Aguinaldo’s plans
Gained important Filipino supporters and undermined revolutionaries
Significantly aided Unites States’ military effort to win war Filipinos trained troops steady supply of military equipment control of archipelago's waterways no chance of outside support shortages of weapons American Second phase Filipino's shift to guerrilla -style warfare
Until spring 1902 most organized Filipino resistance dissipated Consequences 1907: first elected assembly

1916: Jones Act promised eventual independence

1935: archipelagos became autonomous commonwealth

1946: USA granted independence
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