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The Ancient Philippines: Pre-Hispanic Period
Transcript of The Ancient Philippines: Pre-Hispanic Period
-southeast monsoon causes rain and high temp.
-lies astride the typhoon belt and experiences 15 to 20 typhoons a year from July through October
-major natural mineral resources include coal, cobalt, copper, chromite, gold, gypsum, iron, natural gas, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and sulfur
-lesser deposits of bauxite, lead, mercury, molybdenum, and zinc
-important resources are geothermal and hydroelectric power, fish, and timber
-total land area of about 300,000 square kilometers
-about 92,000 square kilometers are farmland
-72,000 square kilometers are forest land
-65,000 square kilometers of public land and 7,000 square kilometers of privately owned land
-made up of 7,107 islands
-located off Southeast Asia
-between the South China Sea on the west and the Philippine Sea on the east
-major islands are Luzon in the north, the Visayan Islands in the middle, and Mindanao in the south Daily Life and Culture -The Filipinos lived in settlements called barangays before the colonization of the Philippines by the Spaniards
-a barangay consisted from 30 to 100 families
-four classes of society
-They were the ruling class (datu), the freemen and notable persons (maharlika), the commoners (timawa), and the dependents and slaves (alipin). The alipin were of two kinds: the aliping namamahay, who were household servants, and the aliping saguiguilid, who were slave workers
-The men wore short-sleeved and collarless jackets, whose length reached slightly below the waist. The color of the jacket appeared to indicate the position of the wearer in society, e.g., red for the chief, and blue or black for those below him, depending on the societal class
-The women’s upper garment was a sleeved jacket, called a baro. Over their skirts (saya or patadyong) was wrapped a strip of cloth called tapis. They also wore gem-studded bracelets, necklaces, rings, and gold earrings
-grew an abundance of rice, sugarcane, cotton, hemp, coconuts, bananas, and many other fruits and vegetables
-With the kaingin system, the land was cleared by burning the shrubs and bushes
-There were public and private lands Government -the barangays were lead by a datu, each barangay having its own
:) Religion -Bathala was the supreme god of the pre-Spanish Filipinos
-attributed to Bathala the creation of the heavens, Earth, and man
-The ancient Filipinos believed in the immortality of the soul and in life after death
-The pre-Spanish Filipinos also revered idols, called anitos in Tagalog and diwata in Visayan
-counterparts of the present saints, to whom Filipinos offer prayers and food, much like their ancestors did
-Spirits of dead relatives were also revered. Sacrifices were offered to all of them Major Events and Figures -The Islam conquered a part of the Philippines
-by the 13th century Islam conquered Southeast Asia
-From there, Islam filtered to Mindanao and Sulu, the southern part of the Philippines, in the 14th century. In 1380, an Arab teacher, Mukdum, arrived in Sulu from the Malay peninsula to preach Islam. He built the first mosque in Simunul, Sulu. Around 1390, he was followed by Raja Baginda, a minor ruler of Menangkabaw, Sumatra. About 1450, Abu Bakr, a Muslim scholar, came to Sulu and married Paramisuli, the daughter of Raja Baginda. After Baginda died, Abu Bakr established a sultanate form of government with himself as sultan. Islam then spread rapidly to all parts of Sulu
-invasion of the Filipinos by Spain did not begin in earnest until 1564