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The Parties of Tomorrow:

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Ahmed Abou Hussein

on 25 November 2014

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Transcript of The Parties of Tomorrow:

Passion for politics and tech
Technology in the Middle East
Online Acitivism
Research Question
Intraparty Relations and Technology
eBusiness... ePolitics
Online Activism
The online state
How political parties are adapting to all of that?
The political process is changing
Image by Tom Mooring
The Parties of Tomorrow:
The Impact of Technology on Intraparty Relations in Hybrid Democracies

New Democracies
New Democracies
Hybrid Democracies
Competitive Authoritarianism
Illiberal Democracy
Specially Developed ICTs
Social Media Tools
Mobile Applications
How do political parties, in new democracies, use technology to perform necessary intraparty functions, such as party leadership election, candidate selection, policy formulation, and members’ admission and development?
Research Question
"They're talking about a revolution.."

by Ahmed M. Abou Hussein
: It is the study of the relationship/competition between parties and external relations with the electorate

: It is the study of the relationship between the leadership and members

(Gibson & Ward, 2009)
+ Intraparty Relationships (West)
"Politics as usual"
There is no significant impact. Technology is just used to replace paperwork

"This does not mean that the new media are unimportant, only that their impact on power, democracy and participation is limited."
(Pedersen & Sagile, 2005: 363)
More power given to the leadership
and technology becomes a tool for centralization

Populism is a symptom of a fundamental change in the functioning of a party, (...) a virtual façade around one single person.
(Rommele, 2003 & Hartleb, 2013)
Indirect Democ.
The political elite are responsible for the decision making, but technology is utilized for accountability

(Åström, 2004)
Direct Democ.
Rank-and-file adequately informed

Emphasize informal networks based on interests, rather than hierarchy or geographical boundaries

Direct decision making

(Margetts, 2001; Pedersen & Saglie, 2005; Gibson & Ward, 2009)
Interactive Democ.
'Involving' members/supporters in decision making, discussions, policy formulation process.

(Åström, 2004)
“The party is thus not a meteor, confronting its inevitable burn-up. Nor is it a phoenix, rising to new glories out of the ashes of its past.
It is a chameleon, permanently engaged in surveying its political landscape and transforming itself to respond to new circumstances and thus guarantee continued relevance

(Meisel and Mendelsohn, 2001: 163)
"Before we enquire about the relationships developing from using technology, why are they using it to start with?"

Pressure: (online activism)
Declining Membership
Better tool of communication
The new capacities technology provide
Models of Adaptation
Theory of Party Change

1) Vote Maximization
2) Office Maximization
3) Ideology
4) Intraparty Democracy
(Rommele, 2003; Gibson & Ward, 2009; Yacoub et al., 2013,)
Research Design
PhD proposal
How and Why?
Theories of Party Change
Theories of Digital Democracy
Models of Adaptation
Most Similar System Design (MSSD)
Case Studies
Units of comparison: Political parties
Literature Cornerstones:
Parties & Technology
Middle East & Technology
Parties in the Middle East
Intraparty dynamics
Lit. Comments
New Field
Insufficient Data
Very centered on Western parties
More focus on the "inter" and the "external"
"We need
more research inside parties
to examine the extent to which technology is facilitating a reshaping of relations between elites and members/supporters."
(Gibson & Ward, 2009: 95-6)
"... the geographic focus has been towards
North America
and to some e
xtent Northern Europe
CAPMAS vs Parties
Focus: Inter & Intra?
Case Studies?
Thank you!
Gibson, Rachel, and Stephen Ward. “Parties in the Digital Age — A Review Article.” Representation 45, no. 1 (April 1, 2009): 87–100. doi:10.1080/00344890802710888.

Gibson, Rachel K., Kevin Gillan, Fabienne Greffet, Benjamin J. Lee, and Stephen Ward. “Party Organizational Change and ICTs: The Growth of a Virtual Grassroots?” New Media & Society 15, no. 1 (February 1, 2013): 31–51. doi:10.1177/1461444812457329.

Hartleb, Florian. All Tomorrow’s Parties: The Changing Face of European Party Politics. The Centre for European Studies (CES), 2012. http://martenscentre.eu/publications/all-tomorrow%E2%80%99s-parties-changing-face-european-party-politics.

Hartleb, Florian. “Anti-Elitist Cyber Parties?: Understanding the Future of European Political Parties.” Journal of Public Affairs 13, no. 4 (November 2013): 355–69. doi:10.1002/pa.1480.

Margetts, Helen. “The Cyber Party.” In ECPR Joint Session Workshops, 1–26. London, 2001. http://web.iaincirebon.ac.id/ebook/moon/PoliticsMatters/Cyber_party_paper.pdf.

Margetts, Helen. “Cyber Parties.” In Handbook of Party Politics, 528–35. 1 Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd, 2006. http://knowledge.sagepub.com/view/hdbk_partypol/n46.xml.

Pedersen, Karina, and Jo Saglie. “New Technology in Ageing Parties Internet Use in Danish and Norwegian Parties.” Party Politics 11, no. 3 (May 1, 2005): 359–77. doi:10.1177/1354068805051782.

Römmele, Andrea. “Political Parties, Party Communication and New Information and Communication Technologies.” Party Politics 9, no. 1 (January 1, 2003): 7–20. doi:10.1177/135406880391002.

Yaacob, Raja Ahmad Iskandar Raja, Abdul Mutalib Embong, Mohd Nuri Al Amin Endut, and Abdur-Rahman Mohamed Amin. “Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Implementation in Malaysian Political Parties.” International Journal of Social Science and Humanity 4, no. 3 (2014): 189–93. doi:10.7763/IJSSH.2014.V4.344.

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