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Classification

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by

Chris Smith

on 13 January 2016

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Transcript of Classification

Have lots of legs and segmented bodies.
There are four groups of arthropods:

Arachnids
Centipedes & Millipedes
Crustaceans
Insects
Arthropods
Think of three examples of how we group/organize things in our daily lives.


Why do we group these things?
Why classify?
Grouping & Identifying Living Things
Classification
Summary of Vertebrates
They obtain food from the environment in various ways
They digest their food
They move from place to place
They reproduce sexually
They develop specialized cells that form tissues and organs
What is an Animal?
We typically put living things into two large groups:

Animals


Plants


(But...it’s not that simple is it?)
Classifying
Living Things

These are animals with a backbone.
Bilateral symmetry
There are five groups of vertebrates:

Fish
Amphibians
Reptiles
Birds
Mammals
Vertebrates
Almost all animals are invertebrates = 95 %
These are animals without a backbone
There are nine groups of invertebrates:
Sponges
Cnidarians
Flatworms
Roundworms
Mollusks
Segmented Worms
Arthropods
Echinoderms
Chordates
Invertebrates
Animals are split into two major groups:


Invertebrates



Vertebrates
Animals
Charles Darwin - Father of Evolutionary Theory
Scientific Classification -
Taxonomy
Monotremes:
Egg layers…wait!…it’s a mammal right?
Duck-billed platypus and echidna (spiny anteater)
Only found in Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea
Marsupials:
Pouch: made of hair, skin located on outside of body
Two periods of development
Placentals:
95% of all mammals
Uterus = hollow, muscular organ in which offspring develop
Gestation = period of development in the uterus
Mammal
Diversity
Snakes
Turtles
Alligators
Crocodiles
Lizards

Reptiles
Ectothermic = live mostly in regions that are warm year round
Have no claws on their toes
Have thin, moist skin
Live on land and water
Become dormant when conditions are too hot or cold
External fertilization – lay eggs in water
Metamorphosis:
Amphibia means “double life”
Tadpole – have fins, gills, 2-chambered heart
Adults – develop legs, lungs, and a 3-chambered heart
Amphibians
Class
Agnatha – (AG nuh thuh)
Jawless
Lampreys, hagfishes
Parasitic = round mouth attaches to fish and sucks out the prey’s blood
Chondrichthyes - (kahn DRIHK theez)
Cartilaginous
Sharks, skates, and rays
Osteichthyes – (ahs tee IHK theez)
Bony
Most numerous
Fishes
Aquatic, asymmetric
Come in a variety of colors, shapes, and sizes
Bodies made of loosely joined cells
Sessile=don’t move
Filter feeders
Most sponges are Hermaphrodites=produce both male/female sex cells
Sponges
Respiration:
4-chambered heart = rapidly sends oxygenated blood through the body, beats up to a thousand times/minute
Lungs and Air Sacs = gas exchange during inhalation and exhalation
Reproduction:
Internal fertilization
Hard-shelled amniotic eggs
Birds
Class: Aves
Flight = evolutionary adaptation for survival
Evolved from dinosaurs
Endothermic = feathers, they pant to reduce heat, have to eat a lot
Feathers = lightweight, modified scales that provide insulation and enable flight
Sternum = breast bone provides anchor for flight muscles, wings
Hollow bones = thin, hollow bones provide a lightweight structure making flight easier
Birds
Ectothermic = cold-blooded
Have dry, thick skin covered w/ scales = prevents H2O loss
Respiration:
Most: 3-chambers
Some: 4-chambers
Reproduction
Terrestrial = on land
Amniotic egg = provides nourishment and protection
Diet:
Lizards = mostly insects
Turtles/Tortoises = most herbivores
Snakes = rodents, amphibians, insects, fishes, eggs, & other reptiles
Alligators/Crocodiles = fish, birds, mammals, and other reptiles
Reptiles
Ectothermic = temperature regulated by the environment
Fishes
Asymmetric
Urochordata - Tunicates (sea squirts)
Cephalochordota – Lancelets
Notochord = long, semirigid, rodlike structure made up of large, fluid-filled cells (in vertebrates, this develops into a backbone/spine)
Dorsal hollow nerve cord – fluid-filled tube that directs control of muscle blocks
Gill slits - located behind mouth for straining food from the water
Muscle blocks – anchored by the notochord, provides firm surface to pull against
Invertebrate Chordates
Flies, grasshoppers, butterflies, moths, bees, beetles, etc.
Largest group of arthropods
Have three pairs of legs
Bodies divided into three sections: head, thorax, and abdomen
Only invertebrates w/ wings = evolutionary advantage (easier access to food, shelter, and mating)
There are more species of insects than all other classes of animals combined!!!
Arthropods - Insects
Crabs, lobsters, shrimp, crayfish, barnacles, water fleas, and pill bugs (only terrestrial species)
Have 5 to 7 pairs of legs
First pair often modified claws for defense
Have two compound eyes, typically located on stalks
Only arthropods to have two pairs of antennae
Mandible = jaws, for crushing food, move side-to-side
Bodies covered in a shell – appendages grow from it
Arthropods - Crustaceans
DYK: Of the 30000 species, only about a dozen are dangerous to humans
Spiders (largest group), scorpions, mites, and ticks
Have four pairs of legs.
Six to eight simple eyes
Book lungs
Body composed of two sections (cephalothorax and abdomen)
No mandible (jaw), use 1st and 2nd pair of appendages and digestive enzymes to digest prey
Chilicerae (kih LIHS uh ree) = modified pinchers or fangs
Pedipalps (PED ih palpz) = mod. appendages for handling food and sensory
Arthropods -
Arachnids
Earthworms and leeches (hermaphrodites), and bristle worms
Have bodies divided into segments
Digestion-mouth, crop, gizzard, intestine, anus
Nephridia = waste excretion
Bilateral symmetry
Setae = tiny bristles, anchors
Segmented worms
Nematodes - ascaris, hookworms, pinworms
Have long thin round worm like bodies, tapered at both ends
Thick skin for protection
Have bodies with no segments
Free-living or parasitic
Simplest animals w/ a digestive system (mouth and anus)
Roundworms
Tapeworms & flukes (parasitic)
Planarians (free-living)
Bilateral symmetry
Have flat worm-like bodies
Pharynx = tube-like muscular organ extending from the mouth
Nerve net or simple CNS (eyespots, ganglia and nerve cord)
Hermaphrodites
Can regenerate body parts
Flatworms
Jellyfish, coral, sea anemones, & hydras
Radial symmetry
Two stages:
Polyp = tube-shaped body, w/ mouth surrounded by tentacles
Medusa = umbrella-shaped
Have thin, sack-like bodies
Single body opening leading to gastrovascular cavity
Nerve net
Nematocysts = defensive cells, can be sticky, barb-like, or toxic...OUCH!!!
Cnidarians
Orders -
Perissodactyla:
Odd-toed ungulates (hoofed)
Horses, donkeys, zebras, tapirs, and rhinoceroses
Placentals
Orders -
Primates:
Monkeys
Chimpanzees
Orangutans
Gorillas (largest)
Humans
Placentals
Orders -
Carnivora:
Have large canines and incisors for cutting and tearing flesh
Claws for grabbing prey
Bears, Cats, Dogs, Seals, Sea Lions, Weasels, Minks, Wolverines, Otters, Raccoons, Skunks
Placentals
From the Latin word mamma, meaning “breast”
Endothermic – hair (fur)
Reproduction:
Placental = Internal fertilization w/ live birth, no eggs
Mammary glands = produce milk to nurse offspring
Respiration:
Diaphragm = sheet of muscle located beneath the lungs, aids in respiration
4-chambered heart = keeps oxygenated and deoxygenated blood separate, more efficient
Diet:
Have different types of teeth based on diet
Incisors, canines, premolars, and molars
Mammals
Orders:
Caudata - (kaw DAHT uh)
Salamanders
Newts
Anura - (uh NUHR uh)
Frogs
Toads
Apoda - (uh POH duh)
Legless caecilians
Amphibians
Have long thin bodies and pairs of legs on each of their many body sections
Tracheal tubes = breathing
Malpighian tubules = excreting wastes
Centipedes:
Carnivores = eat snails, slugs, and worms
Bites can be painful to humans
Millipedes:
Herbivores = eat mostly plants (living/dead)
Do not bite, but they can spray obnoxious-smelling fluids from their defensive stink glands
Arthropods – Centipedes
& Millipedes
Slugs, snails, squids, octopuses, oysters, clams, mussels, scallops
Bilateral symmetry
Crawl on a single fleshy pad.
Mantle = thin membrane that surround the internal organs
Can have a shell, secreted by the mantle
Most species have separate sexes, some terrestrial species are hermaphrodites
Simple nervous system, brain and nerves, most have paired eyes
Mollusks
Orders -
Cetacea:
Dolphins, Porpoises, Whales
Sirenia:
Manatees (sea cows)
Proboscidea:
Elephants
Placentals
Orders -
Chiroptera:
Bats
Lagomorphia:
Rabbits (live in burrows, altricial), Hares (live in nests, precocial), and Pikas
Edentata:
Anteaters, Armadillos, and Sloths
Placentals
Sea stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, sand dollars
Radial symmetry
Rays = long, tapering arms covered w/ spines
Spiny endoskeleton made from calcium carbonate (makes up limestone)
Water vascular system:
-Madreporite = dorsal opening that brings water in/out of the vascular system
-Tube feet = hundreds of hydraulic, suction cup-tipped appendages responsible for movement, waste removal, gas exchange, and capturing food
Pedicellariae = jaw-like pinchers covering the skin, protection
Diet:
Sea stars = worms, mollusks
Sea urchins = graze on algae
Sea cucumbers, brittle stars, and sea lilies = decaying matter that drifts down to the ocean floor
Echinoderms
Six Kingdoms of Life
Orders -
Insectivora:
Eat insects
Hedgehogs, shrews, and moles
Rodentia:
Largest order
Have sharp teeth for gnawing on hard seeds, bark, twigs, and roots
Mice, Rats, Squirrels, Beavers, Porcupines, Hamsters, Chinchillas, Capybara (largest, up to 140lb!)
Placental
Diversity
Orders -
Artiodactyla:
Even-toed ungulates (hoofed)
Pigs, hippos, camels, deer, giraffes, pronghorn, antelope, sheep, goats, cattle, peccaries, and chevrotains (mouse deers)
Placentals
Animals
Plants
Fungi
Protists
Eubacteria
Archaea (ar key a)
Prokaryotic = no cell nuclei
Unicellular = single-celled
Cell walls = without peptidoglycan
Extremists = live in harsh environments
Nutrition = autotroph or heterotroph
Reproduce by binary fission
Examples:
Methanogens (swamps)
Thermophiles(hot springs)
Halophiles (VERY salty water)
Examples:
Proteobacteria (soils and in animal intestines)
Cyanobacteria (hot springs)
Halophiles (VERY salty H2O)
Eukaryotic = nucleus
Unicellular and multicellular
Most live in water
Nutrition = autotroph or heterotroph
Three types:
Animal-like (Protozoa)
Plant-like (Protophyta)
Fungus-like (Slime molds)
Fungus-like Protists: -Slime molds
Animal-like Protists:
-Giardia
-Plasmodium
-Foraminiferan
Plant-like Protists:
-Green Algae
-Brown Algae
-Red Algae
-Diatoms
-Dinoflagellate
Single-celled or multi-celled
Most live in water
Three types:
Animal-like (Protozoa)
Plant-like (Protophyta)
Fungus-like (Slime molds)
Examples:
Mushrooms
Molds
Mildews
Yeasts
Rusts
Eukaryotic = nucleus
Multicellular
Autotrophs = make their own energy through photosynthesis
Cell walls = made of cellulose
Most live on land
Vascular tissues
Domain:
Eukaryota
Types of Plants:
Lower Plants (Nonvascular)
Mosses
Liverworts
Hornworts
Higher Plants (Vascular):
Ferns
= produce spores
Gymnosperms
= exposed seeds
Angiosperms
= flowers/fruits contain seeds
Types of Plants:
Fungi
Fungi
Plants
Gymnosperms
Conifers
Cycads
Ginkgos
Gnetales
Conifers = cone-bearing
Pines
Cypress
Douglas-firs
Spruce
Hemlocks
Redwoods
Cedars
Junipers
Cycads
Ginkgo
Gnetales
Protists
Angiosperms
Scales = thin bony plates formed from the skin
Paired Fins = fan-shaped membranes used for balance, swimming, and steering
Respiration:
Two-chambered heart
Gills and circulatory system
Lateral line system = fluild-filled canals that detect movement/vibration
Swim bladder = gas-filled sac that allows a fish to float
Internal and External fertilization
Green Tree Frog
American Bullfrog
Species:
H. sapiens
Genus:
Homo
Family:
Hominidae
-Suborder: Anthropoidea
Order:
Primates
Class:
Mammalia
-Subclass: Theria
Phylum:
Chordata
-Subphylum: Vertebrata
Kingdom:
Animalia
Prokaryotic = no cell nuclei
Unicellular = single-celled
Cell walls = contain peptidoglycan
Nutrition = autotroph or heterotroph
Reproduce by binary fission
Incredibly common
Eukaryotic = nucleus
Most multicellular
Cell walls = contain chitin
Nutrition = heterotroph (decomposer)
Reproduce by spores
Most live on land
Eukaryotic = nucleus
Multicellular
Heterotroph
NO cell walls
Animals
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