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EEAS (European External Action Service)

Free e-learning course for personal use, licensing available
by

Andras Baneth

on 16 June 2014

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Transcript of EEAS (European External Action Service)

EEAS
contribution
to other
EU policies

EU
foreign
policy

Main
Features

Origins
~
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
national
State
Department

European Union level
~
What You Will Learn
The EU’s latest rulebook, the Treaty of Lisbon, which entered into force in December 2009, provided the legal ground for the new service.
In this section, we will look at the origins of the European External Action Service
(or EEAS for short).

We will then explain its main features.
formally established in July 2010
the EU’s executive arm,
the European Commission
Prior to the EEAS
had one of its departments
dedicated to foreign policy
Directorate General for External Relations
DG RELEX
As foreign policy has traditionally been an exclusive competence of EU Member States
Demand to coordinate the Member States’ policies better on EU level
single person to head
a single institution
coordinating and shaping the joint foreign policy of the EU
Hence the European External Action Service was created.
Officially launched in January 2011
DG RELEX
senior management team
had been nominated
Diplomatic corps

of the EU
High Representative of the Union for
Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
Foreign affairs chief of the European Union
=
/
Foreign affairs ministers in
the
individual
EU Member States.
Baroness Catherine Ashton
until November 2014
+
Supports the
High Representative
Common Foreign and
Security Policy (CFSP)
of the European Union
conducting
functions autonomously from
other European Union institutions
Legally speaking,
=
/
=
/
EU institution
EU agency
it is an
‘autonomous body’
or service
Yet, it bears the legal responsibility of making sure its policies are
in line
and
consistent
with other
EU policies
.
High Representative wears
“two hats”
He or she is one of the Vice-Presidents
of the European Commission,
the EU’s executive arm
Baroness Catherine Ashton
Energy
Development
and many
others
and in this capacity
presides at the
He or she is
the head
of the
Foreign Affairs Council
,
the regular meeting of the foreign ministers
of all 28 EU Member States,
trying to coordinate and integrate the foreign policy of the Member States.
This underlines the aim of the Member States that the
EU’s foreign policy
, or
“external action”
as it is called, should be a fine balance between
European Commission,
which represents overall

“European interests”
28 Member States
which, while representing their
national interests,
try to
streamline, coordinate and bring these closer
to create a unified European position.
The EEAS has staff working in its
Brussels headquarters
and there is also a significant staff in
every Delegation of the European Union
around the world
(except for the locally recruited personnel).
the EU as a whole,
under the EEAS
, also has a network of
140 Delegations and Offices globally
While individual EU Member State
have
their own bilateral embassies

around the world,
All delegations of the EU in non-EU Member countries
are now part of the EU’s diplomatic service, that is, the EEAS
parts of their staff may still report to the
European Commission
Directorate General
for Enlargement,

Directorate General for
Development Cooperation

Directorate General
for Trade
They EU delegations
are tasked with:
gathering political information
analyzing local political dynamics
improving contacts with local actors and the non-governmental sector
coordinating the work of the 28 EU national embassies
improving representation vis-a-vis third countries, that is, countries outside the European Union.
The EU’s foreign policy is composed
of a number of elements, such as:
Common Foreign
and Security Policy
(CFSP)
Crisis response and peace-building
Human rights
Non-proliferation and Disarmament
Fight against
Terrorism
1993
Treaty of Maastricht
Established
12
The goal to create
Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)
1999
High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy
preserve peace and
strengthen international
security
Objectives
Javier Solana,
the former secretary
general of NATO

coordinate EU foreign policy jointly with
six-month
rotating Presidency of the Council of Ministers
12
became
the voice of the EU
on foreign policy issues in the world, in close and constant coordination with the Member States’ foreign affairs ministers
unified voice
2009
High Representative
The 28 EU Member States define the principles and general guidelines for the CFSP, under the guidance and feeding into the efforts of the High Representative.
Based on this setup, the Council of the EU, where the 28 foreign affairs ministers meet, adopts decisions and so-called “common approaches” of the EU Member States.
Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
is one of the main components of CFSP
The word
“Common”
essentially refers to bringing the 28 EU Member States’ position
closer to each other
Defense
Security
Crisis response refers to the way the EU reacts to such events like

uprisings
riots
natural disasters
impacting the political stability of a region beyond the EU’s borders:
it may include both military and civilian tools
.
The longer-term component of crisis response is peace building
,
or the effort to recreate and maintain stability in a conflict-torn territory.
The EU’s work in crisis management and peace building takes place in several regions:
the Balkans, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Africa
Crisis management
is
very complex
:
social
security
economic
issues that caused the crisis
political
environmental
The EU
does

not have its own military or peacekeeping staff
but it helps to coordinate or pool together those of its Member States.
EULEX-Kosovo
is a deployment of European Union police and civilian resources to Kosovo to create and maintain the rule of law with the help of policemen, prosecutors and judges from the
EU’s 28 Member States plus Canada, the United States, Turkey, Switzerland and Norway
.
The EU uses the following tools in its peace-building efforts
Financial support
international peacekeeping
operations
peace negotiations,
donor conferences
demobilization, disarmament,
reintegration and rehabilitation
DDRR
anti-mine actions
Sending CSDP missions
to help manage
sensitive borders
to improve
civilian administration
for Security Sector Reform
SSR
Supporting
democratization
strengthening the rule of law
child-related
post-conflict assistance
media independence
judicial reform
Humanitarian aid
relief
rehabilitation
reconstruction
operations
development
assistance
CSDP missions of the EU include
helping civil policing
in Afghanistan
security-sector reform in the Democratic Republic of Congo
monitoring the border between Gaza and Egypt
strengthening security forces in Somalia
High Representative
Crisis Management and Planning Directorate
CMPD
EU Military Staff
EUMS
Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability
CPCC
Relevant structures
Managing Director for
Crisis Response and
Operation Coordination
Human rights must be effectively integrated into the foreign policy of the EU.

legal personality
scrutinize
internal human
rights practices
NGO
international
Human Rights Directorate
HRD
more coherent
and consistent actions
EU
Members of
28 states
EU institutions
and sub-units
laise &
cooperate
EU uses numerous tools to promote human rights
10%
aid
human rights
good governance
supporting civil society
human rights clauses
included in EU agreements
Suspension clause
if the country in question “violates human rights”, the EU can use
diplomatic and economic measures
to either condemn it or push it back on track.
Trade agreement
India
Suspension clause
affects the trade deal
precondition for concluding
the agreement
Negative
asset freezes
tools
embargoes on arms or trade
flight or visa bans
champion
since the 1980s
EU
After 9/11, 2001
European Security
Strategy (2003)
A Secure Europe
in a better world
updated 2008
terrorism
proliferation of weapons of mass destruction
regional conflicts
state failure
organized crime
proliferation of WMD
the greatest threat to European security
the consequences of the
illicit manufacture, transfer and circulation

of small arms and light weapons are
central to the other four challenges
foreign countries,
regions,
international institutions
EU
non-proliferation and
disarmament issues
Council
of EU
has the right to act on aspects of international peace and security
CHINA
binding regulations in trade policy
bilateral agreement
export of
WMD
related items
and technologies
EU Member States themselves enjoy their own competences in all aspects that go beyond the CFSP and CSDP
They continue to defend their specific interests, even if these often diverge, as in the case of nuclear weapons.
Combating terrorism,
high on the EU’s
agenda ever since the 1970s.
120
countries
intelligence services, prevention and policy
EU
80 to 90%
10 to 20%
competences and responsibility for fighting terrorism
urges the EU Member States
to act in a coherent way
against terrorism
but it
does not change
the competence sharing
central role in
tackling terrorism
Directorates
General
Home Affairs
Justice
money laundering
transport safety
personal data
passenger
name records etc.
DG
Council
of EU
EU Counter-Terrorism Coordinator
external

aspects of combating terrorism
formulating and
promoting EU positions
partnerships
assistance to
third countries
liaising with international institutions
Global Multilateral Issues Directorate
Conflict Prevention and
Security Policy Division
counter-terrorism
cyber security and cyber crime
sanctions and restrictive measures
organized crime and trafficking
plays a role in formulating the EU policies regarding
Development
Humanitarian aid
Neighbouring
countries
Enlargement
Energy
EU
Directorate-General for Development and Cooperation
DG DEVCO
does not tackle development aid per se
X
works
closely with
tries to feed into the EU’s development policies its own concerns
security
tackling the roots of terrorism
respect for human rights
Development
BURMA
improve the
rule of law
empower civil
society
reduce radical
elements
The main regions targeted
Africa
South-East
Asia
Middle East
Directorate-General for
Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection
DG ECHO
intervene and feed in its field expertise
resilience
disaster response
prevention and preparedness
in third countries
The humanitarian community
needs the help of the military
strategic airlift
fuel management
communications
services
sea and airport
repairs
road and bridge
repairs
2010 floods
Pakistan
Tunisia
Evacuation of 3rd country nationals
EEAS + DG ECHO
European Neighbourhood Policy
ENP
(2004)
Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus,
Egypt, Georgia, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon,
Libya, the Republic of Moldova, Morocco,
the occupied Palestinian territory, Syria,
Tunisia and Ukraine
EU
16 partner countries
prosperity, stability and security
EU Borders
Directorate-General for Enlargement and European Neighbourhood Policy
agenda of political and economic reforms to be carried out over 3 to 5 years
Action Plan
Eastern Partnership
Union for the Mediterranean
Black Sea Strategy
The EU’s enlargement
key policy since the beginning of European integration
2004
10 Central and
Eastern European countries
2007
Romania and
Bulgaria
2013
Croatia
5 candidates
Iceland, Montenegro, Serbia,
the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey
Potential candidates
Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo
Directorate-General for Enlargement
close coordination
Baroness Catherine Ashton
Kosovo & Serbia
agreement
Directorate General for Energy
Member States maintain the rights to determine all essential elements of forming their own energy policy
growing demand
volatile prices
interruptions of supply due to technical or political reasons
The international energy landscape
EU cultivates relations
with its key energy partners
EU
Russia, Norway, the US, India, China, OPEC
Directorate-General for Energy
Service
In 1992, the EU embedded human rights in the major amendment of its Founding Treaty, the Treaty of Maastricht, signed in 1992.
Charter of Fundamental Rights in 2000
Charter of Fundamental Rights in 2000
adopted
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