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Transcript of Early People
- They study artifacts (objects made and used by humans in the past) and fossils (imprints of living things).
2. Anthropologists study how humans developed and relate to one another
- This is known as the earliest time period of human history.
The Stone Age
- It is divided into 2 major time periods: Paleolithic (old) and Neolithic (new)
- Invented tools (first users of technology)
- They were hunters and gatherers, and were nomads (moved around to search for food)
- Caveman that was found in the Alps near the border of Austria and Italy by two hikers in 1991
.- It is believed he lived around 3300 B.C. (Neolithic Time)
- Scientists studied his remains to uncover clues about his life and death
Otzi the Iceman
Studying the Distant Past
3. Geologists - scientists who study rocks and soil
1. Archeologists study human life in the past by looking at what was left behind
Artifact or Fossil?
1960 - Mary and Louis Leakey - found “Homo Habilis” (nicknamed Handy Man) - about 1.75 million years old
The Hunt for Early Humans
Neanderthals and Homo Sapiens
Later Paleolithic People
Catal Hoyuk - one of the oldest villages
New Ways of Living
2009 - Tim White found an almost complete skeleton of “Ardi” - 4.4 million years old
Donald Johanson - found 40% of a female skeleton “Lucy” - 3.2 million years old
- Villages often had a surplus of food
- This allowed for trade, storage, and longer lives
- People started the specialization of jobs (some people became artists, merchants, potters)
- Bands grew to clans (25-50 people)
There are 3 main scientists that study prehistory (time before written records).
Ways of dating fossils/artifacts
1974 - Donald Johanson finds hundreds of pieces of bone and nicknames the skeleton "Lucy"
- 3.2 million years old
2001 - Michael Brunet finds a skeleton (Toumai) dated almost 7 million years old
- They discovered fire
- Lived in small groups of about 10-12 called bands
Chart on pg. 66
Only Homo Sapiens lived past the Stone Age
- Their culture became more complex
Populating the Earth
2 Theories on Human Migration
- Had to adapt to their new environments
It is very likely Paleolithic people believed that the world was filled with spirits. (animism)
The Next Big Change?
1. Compare objects found in layers of rock
2. Radioactive dating (measure the amount of radioactive material left by that object)
3. Use DNA