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Alloys & Metallic Bonding
Transcript of Alloys & Metallic Bonding
of a metal atom become
or detached from the rest of the atom.
How Metallic Bonds
How are atoms in a metal held together?
How are metallic bonds formed?
Main Points of Metallic Bonding
Why are alloys more useful than pure metals?
All metal atoms are held together through
Metallic bonds can be between
atoms of the same metals
atoms of different metals.
Valance electrons in metals are
(free to move around & not connected to the cation)
Alloys are chemical substances where the
main component is a metal
However, the metal is
mixed (not bonded!)
with other elements.
Brass - 67% copper, 33% zinc
Bronze - 60% copper, 39% tin, 1% aluminum & other elements
Steel - 98% iron, 1% carbon, 1% other
Has different properties then that of the pure metal (enhances the properties)
Does not rust as easily
Harder to break or damage
Metal cations are held together via a
SEA OF ELECTRONS
Metals have a
due to the organization of their metal cations. This is why metals are relatively hard (not easy to break).
However, metals are
flexible, malleable & ductile
cations in the
sea of electrons
are able to move around and not locked into place.
Delocalized electrons - free to move around between the stable cations
Sea of Electrons
Properties of Pure Metals
very soft (malleable)
Do these sound like ideal properties for making something out of metal?
Look at the list of everyday items:
While these are all made from metals, are they PURE metals?
14 karat gold - NOT PURE GOLD!
Sterling silver - NOT PURE SILVER!
The Structure of
Pure Metals vs. Alloys
The atoms in pure metals are very
, which allows them to easily
slide over one another
when a force is applied
The atoms in an alloy are
due to the mixture of the different metals and elements. When a force is applied, the atoms are
NOT able to slide over one another
. This makes the alloy extremely strong.
How are alloys made?
Alloys can be made 2 different ways:
Melting each metal and then mixing them together.
Taking a solid piece of metal, chemically coating it with a thin layer of the second metal (callled plating) and heating until they physically combine.