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Copy of American Revolutionary War

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Transcript of Copy of American Revolutionary War

Great Britain
Force: 7200
Killed: 140
Wounded: 370
Captured: 390
U.S Colonies
Force: 9000
Killed: 60
Wounded: 260
Captured: 0
Casualties
Medicine & Disease During the American Revolution
The Battle of Bunker Hill
Friday, June 16, 1775
Charlestown, Massachusetts
The Siege Fort Ticonderoga
Washington's Problems
Spy Network
Spies in the Revolutionary War were extremely necessary in the American's victory in the war, but they were in constant danger. These spies were pioneers in creating new tactics in coded communication and intelligence gathering. Many spies broke common society barriers, such as there being female spies going against the gender barrier. This unorthodox setup was extremely vital in creating the surprise factor necessary at the time. Even so, there were spies on both sides. If one was found from either side, they were executed for treason. Due to this danger, spies were very scarce, and those who were spies were also trained assassins-to silence those who might have found them.
Disease killed more men than the war itself. The lack of medical knowledge in America made for easily treatable infections to become deadly epidemics.
Many diseases plagued soldiers on both sides:
Smallpox
Typhoid
Yellow Fever
Malaria
Dysentery
American Revolutionary War
Culper Ring
The Culper Ring were some of the most influential spies in the War. They were primarily based in New York and were so secretive that Washington himself did not know the operatives. They operated by sending coded messages through a new form of invisible ink in between lines of newspaper and letters, and had influence in British ranks, allowing them an efficient stream of information. Women were also a major part of this ring despite discrimination, since they were usually forced to believe what their husbands wanted and not have any political beliefs, making them the perfect people to carry out spying. Many battles that were turned around were because of the Culper Ring's information gathering.
General Ethan Allen
Born on 01/21/1738
Died 02/12/1789
He fought against the province of New York
leader of the Green Mountain Boys
Recruited by Benedict Arnold
He was a versatile Man
Known for the capture of Fort Ticonderoga
Took all the credit for war victories
General Benedict Arnold
Born 01/14/1741
Died 06/14/1801
Appointed a commander by Washington
Recruted his army of men
He fought for Both sides
Never given credit for war victories
His name was of Treason
Very Clever and Bright
Paid handsomely
Lost to America
escaped and then returned to London
Discredited for everything he did
Captain William DeLaPlace
British Commander for this battle
He was born on January 1, 1730
Died on January 1, 1790
His small army of troops were ambushed in the night
He was forced to surrender
Taken Prisoner in American Revolutionary War
BRITISH COMMANDER
US COLONIES & BRITISH COMMANDER
US COLONIES COMMANDER
Date And Time:
1775 at Lake Champlain, (Northwestern)New York on May 10th
Casualties
Great Britain
The US Colonies
Force: 78
Killed: 0
Wounded: 0
Captured: 0
Results
Force: 168
Killed: 0
Wounded: 0
Captured: 1
100 men surprised and ambushed the dozen British soldiers. The commander of the fort shortly surrendered and the soldiers were taken hostage. The allied colonies now have control of Fort Ticonderoga and its shifts the odds to their favor.
Background Information:
Fort Ticonderoga was the main access to Canada and the Hudson River during the French and Indian War. The battle was a small scale conflict but it was Americas first official victory of the Revolutionary War and it supplied them with many weapons to use in their upcoming battles.
Results
Proved that the Americans could stand up to the British army and that the British army was not invisible. Proved that the war was going to be very close by both sides. Boosted the Americans confidence.
Background Info
This battle made both armies realize that one battle was not going to end war. It was going to be a long bloody war.
The battle of Bunker Hill started when the colonist discovered that the British planned to take over Dorchester Heights(Boston).
The colonist assumed this would be the final battle so they went all out trying to protect and secure their rights and freedom!
Needed more ammo; "Don't shoot til you see the white in their eyes"
British Commander

General Sir William Howe
Born 08/10/1729
Died 07/12/1814
One of the three Howe Brothers
Family of wealth
Known for Breeds Hill
Captured New York &Philadelphia
He lead a huge army, more than 4,000 soldiers called for more soldiers after Breeds Hill
He lost his spirit and heart for war
Missed opportunity to take down
Washington
Ordered the execution of Nathan Hale
Enemy of Washington
Back and forth in battle with Washington
Lost the War
Looked down on by the british
Died with the Viscountcy

U.S Colonies Commander
Dr. Joseph Warren
Born 6/11/1741
Died 6/17/1775
Doctor and Soldier
Leading role in Patriot Organization in Boston
Died in War
Studied Medicine at Harvard University
associated with John Hancock, Samuel Adams
Active in Sons Of Liberty
Appointed Provincial Congress
Appointed A major General
Served General Putnam
Died at Bunker Hill
Body found because of His tooth


Commander Israel Putnam
Born 01/07/1717
Died 05/29/1790
Rode 100 miles in 8 hours
Offered His service in war
appointed colonel, brigader, major general
He planned and fought in Bunker Hill
Bunker Hill was his greatest achievement
Retread in battle of Long Island
Blamed for failure to win battle by congress
Then assigned to recruiting actions
Suffered a stroke
Left the war because of illness



U.S Colonies Commander
Casualties
Great Britain
Force: 3,000
Killed: 226
Wounded: 828
Captured: 0
The U.S. Colonies
Force: 2400
Killed: 115
Wounded: 305
Captured: 30

The Battle Of Long Island
(Brooklyn Heights)
U.S Colonies Commander
Casualties
Results
Great Britain
Force: 20000
Killed: 64
Wounded: 293
Captured: 31
U.S Colonies
Force: 10000
Killed: 300
Wounded: 800
Captured: 1000
The Battle of Fort Washington
Casualties
Great Britain
Force: 8000
Killed: 84
Wounded: 374
Captured: 0
U.S. Colonies
Force: 3000
Killed: 59
Wounded: 96
Captured: 2837
The Battle of Trenton
Casualties
Great Britain
Force: 1520
Killed: 22
Wounded: 86
Captured: 906
U.S. Colonies
Force: 2400
Killed: 2
Wounded: 5
Captured: 0
The Battle of Saratoga
The Americans had a plan to block the path of the British army to Brooklyn Heights. But people that were loyal to England told the British army about the Jamaica Path. Which was left unprotected by the Americans since it was the least known of four paths. The battle of Long Island was one sided. George Washington lost about one quarter of his army. Lost New York.
The Battle of Monmouth
Casualties
Great Britain
Force: 14500
Killed: 289
Wounded: 641
Captured: 60
U.S Colonies
Force: 11000
Killed: 400
Wounded: 40
Captured: 22
Results
British Commander
Lord Charles Cornwallis
Born 12/31/1738
Died 10/5/1805
Studied at Eton College
Injury to his eye by prostitute
Became a member of Parliament in 1760
Started as second in command to Clinton
Fort Washington was build to prevent the British ships to go up the Hudson River. When the British left Boston they went to Staten Island. The British attacked from three sides and were easily for them to win the fort. When were able to capture most of the Americans troop that were alive, they also took supplies and ammunition. 2000 of the men that were captured died and the rest where released in a prisoner exchange.
British Commander
Sir Henry Clinton
Born 04/16/1730
Died 12/23/1795
Officer and Politician
Member of Parliament
Governor of Gibraltar
Field commander in battle of Bunker Hill
Adviced the british to secure Dorchster Heights
Sent south with 1500 men
He was correct about the rebel
Dorchester Heights was captured
Attacked Fort Sullivan
Failed attack
Underestimated the american army
Rejoined the war in agaiust of 1776
His opinions were always being dismissed
Great success in Battle of Long Island
Became lieutenant general
Made the Knight of the Order of the Bath
In charge of army of 6000 men
Occupied Newport, Rhode Island
Replaced as commander because of Failure
Feuded with Arbuthnot

General Sir William Howe
Born 08/10/1729
Died 07/12/1814
One of the three Howe Brothers
Family of wealth
Known for Breeds Hill
Captured New York &Philadelphia
He lead a huge army, more than 4,000 soldiers
called for more soldiers after Breeds Hill
He lost his spirit and heart for war
Missed opportunity to take down Washington
he ordered the execution of Nathan Hale
Enemy of Washington
Back and forth in battle with Washington
Lost the War
Looked down on by the british
Died with the Viscountcy

British Commander
Tuesday August 27
Long Island,NY
BACKGROUND INFO
Washington marched the troops from Boston to New York because he realized that NY was an essential point of communication between the southern and northern companies; They had to do anything to protect it. The colonies faced a force of out numbering British soldiers. They face a force of over 5,000 soldiers!
Results
George Washington wanted to turn things around and the Battle of Trenton was one the turning points of the war. It was Christmas when Washington and his men cross the Delaware River in a winter storm. The Hessians were exposed because they were celebrate the night of Christmas. His army is separated into two sections. And in December 26th The Battle Of Trenton began. The Americans blocked every way in and out of the city. The Hessians were not able to assemble the army properly (had problems firing back because their weapons were all wet. That the americans were very quickly and the Hessians had to surrender.
Commander William Prescott
Born 02/20/1726
Died 10/13/1795
Named a Colonel
Lead 1200 men to Charlestown
Played a key role in Bunker Hill
Commanded a poorly trained army of soldiers. His unit became the 7th continental regiment

George Washington
Born 02/22/1732
Died 12/14/1799
1st President of U.S.A
Lead the patriots to victory over the British
Best reputation in colonies, well respected
Commander in chief in American Revolutionary War
Started off weak, ended strong
He moved his army to New York
Lost both battles in New York
Had a lack of soldiers, ammo, and weapons
Won battles in the winter
Inspired men to join army with each victory
Kept his army alive through harsh conditions
Moved his army countless of times in war
He trapped Howe and succeided in capturig his army
Became allies with France
With the help of the french he ended the war
His army forced the british to surrender in Yorktown
November 2, he said farewell to war and soldiers
U.S Colonies Commander
Commander Israel Putnam
Born 01/07/1717
Died 05/29/1790
Rode 100 miles in 8 hours
Offered His service in war
appointed colonel, brigadier, major general
He planned and fought in Bunker Hill
Bunker Hill was his greatest achievement
Retread in battle of Long Island
Blamed for failure to win battle by congress
Then assigned to recruiting actions
Suffered a stroke
Left the war because of illness



U.S Colonies Commander
U.S Colonies Commander
George Washington
Born 02/22/1732
Died 12/14/1799
1st President of U.S.A
Lead the patriots to victory over the British
Best reputation in colonies, well respected
Commander in chief in American Revolutionary War
Started off weak, ended strong
He moved his army to New York
Lost both battles in New York
Had a lack of soldiers, ammo, and weapons
Won battles in the winter
Inspired men to join army with each victory
Kept his army alive through harsh conditions
Moved his army countless of times in war
He trapped Howe and succeided in capturig his army
Became allies with France
With the help of the french he ended the war
His army forced the british to surrender in Yorktown
November 2, he said farewell to war and soldiers
British Commander

General Sir William Howe
Born 08/10/1729
Died 07/12/1814
One of the three Howe Brothers
Family of wealth
Known for Breeds Hill
Captured New York &Philadelphia
He lead a huge army, more than 4,000 soldiers
called for more soldiers after Breeds Hill
He lost his spirit and heart for war
Missed opportunity to take down Washington
he ordered the execution of Nathan Hale
Enemy of Washington
Back and forth in battle with Washington
Lost the War
Looked down on by the british
Died with the Viscountcy

Thursday, December 26,1776
Trenton, New Jersey
U.S Colonies Commander
George Washington
Born 02/22/1732
Died 12/14/1799
1st President of U.S.A
Lead the patriots to victory over the British
Best reputation in colonies, well respected
Commander in chief in American Revolutionary War
Started off weak, ended strong
He moved his army to New York
Lost both battles in New York
Had a lack of soldiers, ammo, and weapons
Won battles in the winter
Inspired men to join army with each victory
Kept his army alive through harsh conditions
Moved his army countless of times in war
He trapped Howe and succeided in capturig his army
Became allies with France
With the help of the french he ended the war
His army forced the british to surrender in Yorktown
November 2, he said farewell to war and soldiers
British Commander
Background Info
Washington and his army cross the Delaware river to Trenton. They attacked the Hessian and captured them on that Christmas morning because the colonies knew the Hessian celebrate Christmas faithfully and get drunk. With that advantage, Washington's army had the upper hand
U.S Colonies Commander
Commander William Alexander
Scholar and very ambitious
Took the title as Lord Stirling
Made a colonel of New Jersey
Capable and willing to do anything for the cause
Brigadier general in the battle of Long Island
Overwhelmed by the british army
Held prisoner by the british
attacked the british to free patriot army
Praised for his bravery
released in a prisoner exchange
Held in high regard by Washington
In charge of continental army for 2 months
3rd in charge under Washington
brave but at times ineffective
Exposed the Conway cabal( officers trying
to kill Washington)
Appointed commander of Northern army, sent to Albany
Commander Johann Rall
He was a Soldier Child
Commanded 1200 soldiers
Attacked by colonists on Christmas Eve
Ordered a counter attack, but it failed
wounded twice during the invasion
Ordered his men to retreat
Died in his headquarters
Results
Results
Georrge Washington wants to attack the British army because they are vulnerable. He wasn't allowed but later he was. The attack began and a he sun sat down the attack was still on. When in was night the fighting stop. The next morning the American army discovered the British army had withdrawn and kept marching into New York
Considered as the turning point of he war. It was the turning point because the Americans proved that they could defeat the British army and the French got in the war in the Americans side.
George Washington
Born 02/22/1732
Died 12/14/1799
1st President of U.S.A
Lead the patriots to victory over the British
Best reputation in colonies, well respected
Commander in chief in American Revolutionary War
Started off weak, ended strong
He moved his army to New York
Lost both battles in New York
Had a lack of soldiers, ammo, and weapons
Won battles in the winter
Inspired men to join army with each victory
Kept his army alive through harsh conditions
Moved his army countless of times in war
He trapped Howe and succeided in capturig his army
Became allies with France
With the help of the french he ended the war
His army forced the british to surrender in Yorktown
November 2, he said farewell to war and soldiers
U.S Colonies Commander
British Commander
Sir Henry Clinton
Born 04/16/1730
Died 12/23/1795
Officer and Politician
Member of Parliament
Governor of Gibraltar
Field commander in battle of Bunker Hill
Adviced the british to secure Dorchster Heights
Sent south with 1500 men
He was correct about the rebel
Dorchester Heights was captured
Attacked Fort Sullivan
Failed attack
Underestimated the american army
Rejoined the war in agaiust of 1776
His opinions were always being dismissed
Great success in Battle of Long Island
Became lieutenant general
Made the Knight of the Order of the Bath
In charge of army of 6000 men
Occupied Newport, Rhode Island
Replaced as commander because of Failure
Feuded with Arbuthnot
Saturday, November 16,1776
Washington Heights(Manhattan, NY
Background Info
General Howe faced a strong colony defense at Manhattan, but his goal wasn't to kill them all, but to get them to leave the area. Howe targeted Fort Washington which was left under Robert Magaw's control.
Friday, September 19, 1777
Saratoga Area, New York
Background Info
General Burgoyne gathered the best British men and brought them to fight. Their journey to the Hudson area took long so it gave the colonies lead by Morgan to prepare to fight back.
British Commander
John Burgoyne
British commander, fought in both battles of Saratoga
led a huge british army
Became outnumbered and forced to surrender
His men were kept prisoner
He lost an army of 6,000 men
Criticized in Boston for losses in war
Never commanded an army again


Continental Congress Supplying
The Siege of Charleston
The Battle of Yorktown
Results
Supplying the American troops was an extremely difficult task. There were very few factories in the colonies that could produce the weapons and the equipment needed by an army. The money necessary to pay for supplies was issued by the new state governments and the new central government.
Supplies:
Muskets
-A musket was the most important weapon during the American Revolution. A long smooth bore gym fired from the shoulder with a bayonet attached to the end.
Rifles
- The rifle was a long gun made with grooves inside its barrel which made it more accurate than a musket.
Small arms-
A small armor could be carried in a soldier's hand. These included pistols, sabers, and other spear-like weapons called spontoons and halberds.
Artillery-
Artillery were large guns mounted so they could be moved easily and fired by a crew of men. They included field cannon used on the battlefield, cannon used in forts and on ships, and cannon called howitzers and mortars used to drop bombs into a fort.
Equipment of the Continental Army Soldier
Equipment of a Militiaman
Uniforms-
Soldiers needs uniforms because with all the smoke because of the weapons being fired. They had to wear uniforms to distinguish a friends versus an enemy.
a hat
a shirt made of linen or cotton
a black leather stock, worn around the neck
a wool coat, usually with collar, cuffs, and lapels that were a different color
a waistcoat or vest, usually made of linen or wool
a pair of wool, linen, or cotton trousers, either breeches that were gathered just below the knee, or overalls,
stockings
leather shoes
Hunting Shirts-
It was generally made of homespun linen and cut in a long overshirt or wraparound style. It had rows of fringe around the edges and fit loosely so the wearer could move easily.
Equipment for the camp-
the most important equipment was a blanket.
Food
U.S Commander
Sunday, June 28th, 1778
Monmouth, New Jersey
Results
Daniel Morgan
Chosen to lead an army in the War
He recruited about 100 men
These men were skilled shooters(snipers)
They attacked the british from all over
His army was named the Sharp Shooters
Great asset to the Patriot force
Killed many British soldiers


Background Info
General Clinton was heading to NY with a force of 11,000 men,but Washington had a plan to ambush them in NJ because he believed they were vulnerable. After convincing the war council, he assigned Lee to lead the NJ militia and Morgan's riflemen in the ambush.
Since part of the south was still loyal to England they decided to take control of the south. Was one of the most important battle towards the end of the war. Also one of the longest battle. At the end the Continental Army that to surrender about 5000 troops.
Most likely the most important battle here. American army combined with the French force against the British.
U.S Commander
Horatio Gates
At first a British Soldier
He switched sides, became a patriot
Commander in the Battle of Saratoga
Claimed the victor in the battle of Saratoga
Became the main commander when Arnold was injured
Blamed for the Battle of Camden

U.S Colonies & British Commander
General Benedict Arnold
Born 01/14/1741
Died 06/14/1801
Appointed a commander by Washington
Recruited his army of men
He fought for Both sides
Never given credit for war victories
His name was of Treason
Very Clever and Bright
Paid handsomely
Lost to America
escaped and then returned to London
Discredited for everything he did
The Battle of Saratoga (Bemis Heights)
U.S Colonies Commander
U.S Colonies Commander
U.S Colonies Commander
British Commander
John Burgoyne
British commander, fought in both battles of Saratoga
led a huge british army
Became outnumbered and forced to surrender
His men were kept prisoner
He lost an army of 6,000 men
Criticized in Boston for losses in war
Never commanded an army again
General Benedict Arnold
Born 01/14/1741
Died 06/14/1801
Appointed a commander by Washington
Recruited his army of men
He fought for Both sides
Never given credit for war victories
His name was of Treason
Very Clever and Bright
Paid handsomely
Lost to America
escaped and then returned to London
Discredited for everything he did
Horatio Gates
At first a British Soldier
He switched sides, became a patriot
Commander in the Battle of Saratoga
Claimed the victor in the battle of Saratoga
Became the main commander when Arnold was injured
Blamed for the Battle of Camden
Daniel Morgan
Chosen to lead an army in the War
He recruited about 100 men
These men were skilled shooters(snipers)
They attacked the british from all over
His army was named the Sharp Shooters
Great asset to the Patriot force
Killed many British soldiers
Great Britain Commander
U.S Colonies Commander
Commander Wilhelm von Knyphausen
Hessian General
42 years of Military experience
Led troops to battles in the war
Served under William Howe
Trusted by the British
Commander Robert Magaw
In command of the 5th Pennsylvania Regiment
Served as a colonel for Continental Army
Forced to surrender American Garrison
Held as a prisoner in 1776
He was not exchanged until 1780


U.S Colonies Commander
George Washington
Born 02/22/1732
Died 12/14/1799
1st President of U.S.A
Lead the patriots to victory over the British
Best reputation in colonies, well respected
Commander in chief in American Revolutionary War
Started off weak, ended strong
He moved his army to New York
Lost both battles in New York
Had a lack of soldiers, ammo, and weapons
Won battles in the winter
Inspired men to join army with each victory
Kept his army alive through harsh conditions
Moved his army countless of times in war
He trapped Howe and succeided in capturig his army
Became allies with France
With the help of the french he ended the war
His army forced the british to surrender in Yorktown
November 2, he said farewell to war and soldiers
British Commander
Lord Charles Cornwallis
Born 12/31/1738
Died 10/5/1805
Studied at Eton College
Injury to his eye by prostitute
Became a member of Parliament in 1760
Started as second in command to Clinton
Tuesday, October 7, 1777
Saratoga Country, NY
British Commander
Sir Henry Clinton
Born 04/16/1730
Died 12/23/1795
Officer and Politician
Member of Parliament
Governor of Gibraltar
Field commander in battle of Bunker Hill
He adviced the british to secure Dorchster Heights
Sent south with 1500 men
He was correct about the rebel
Dorchester Heights was captured
Attacked Fort Sullivan
Failed attack
Underestimated the american army
Rejoined the war in agaiust of 1776
His opinions were always being dismissed
Great success in Battle of Long Island
Became lieutenant general
Made the Knight of the Order of the Bath
In charge of army of 6000 men
Occupied Newport, Rhode Island
Replaced as commander because of Failure
Feuded with Arbuthnot
British Commander
Admiral Mariot Arbuhnot
Lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia
Replaced by Richard Hughes
commanded the Royal Navy's North American station
Captured the siege of Charleston, south Carolina
Was very difficult to work with
Feuded with Clinton
His army was blockaded in New York City


Background Info
British troops lead by General Burgoyne advanced to NY by Lake Champlain. Previously, on September 19th, they failed to break the American's defense thus losing the first battle of Saratoga. Now the Burgoyne attacked once again against a fierce American line lead by Benedict Arnold. This battle was decisive to the tide of the war
Wednesday, March 29, 1780
Charleston, South Carolina
Background Info
In December 1779, Arbuthnot sent the troops of Sir Henry Clinton to Charleston, South Carolina, and cooperated with him in laying siege to that city. The surrender document signed by prominent citizens was addressed to him and Clinton. On 26 September
1780 he was promoted to Vice Admiral of the White. On 13 March 1781, he fought the French Newport squadron, at the Battle of Cape Henry, before returning to England.
In June, an attack under Clinton's command was made on Fort Sullivan at Charleston, South Carolina. It was a humiliating failure, and his campaign in the Carolinas was called off. The attack, made with the cooperation of the Admiral Marriott, failed because Clinton badly under-estimated the strength of the American forces in Charleston.
Diseases
Smallpox
Maculopapular rash, fatal due to an overactive immune response.

Killed 130,000 during the war.

America was going through the worst Smallpox outbreak in history
Used by the British as a Biological weapon.

Typhoid
Fever with encephalitis, intestinal hemorrhage, and delirium.

Killed men in British prison ships with their unsanitary conditions.
Yellow Fever
Acute viral hemorrhagic disease

Epidemic brought from Barbados and infected Boston and Philadelphia. The people self-quarantined to prevent infection.
Dysentery
an inflammatory disorder of the intestine.

Rampant at Valley Forge. Easily spread due to the close proximity of carriers to uninfected soldiers.
Malaria
Mosquito-borne protozoan infection.

Plagued the southern Carolina rice cultivation fields, killing many more civlians than soldiers.
The siege/battle of Yorktown was the final decisive battle of the American Revolution following the Patriot's brutal Charleston loss. American and French forces led by Washington and Rochambeau assaulted the British lead by General Cornwallis with everything they had.
Background Info
U.s Colonies Commander
January 24, 1733 – May 9, 1810)
Major general in the Continental army
oversaw the largest US surrender of the war
accepted the British surrender at Yorktown.
One of the biggest problems Washington faced was the men he worked with. The men were not experienced. They would leave when they wanted to (many left), and they were not trained either. Hunger, sickness, and harsh weather helped them draw the conclusion to leave. At one point George had only 2000 men in the army. They were not willing to train either. Another big problem was a lack of weaponry, clothing, and food. Simply said joining this war, you inevitably die, whether from starvation, sickness, or just being killed on duty.
Casualties
Great Britain
Force: 13500
Killed: 76
Wounded: 182
Captured: 0
U.S Colonies
Force: 5466
Killed: 92 Wounded: 148
Captured: 4650
Casualties
Great Britain
Force: 8980
Killed: 309
Wounded: 326
Captured: 8007
U.S Colonies
Force: 20600
Killed: 72
Wounded: 180
Captured: 0
Casualties
Great Britain
Force: 6600
Killed: 300
Wounded: 370
Captured: 5900
U.S Colonies
Force: 6600
Killed: 30
Wounded: 100
Captured: 0
Leo
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