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The Establishment of British Empire in India
Transcript of The Establishment of British Empire in India
Chief features of Political
conditions of India
Rise of Independent
Rise and Fall of the Maratha
The Portuguese became the pioneer in discovering a sea route to India. Vasco-da-Gama discovered a sea route to India in 1498.
They controlled the trade route along the Malabar Coast.
Almeida and Albuqureque were some of their generals who consolidated their position and established trade settlements.
Lack of Political Unity
Powerful mansabdars and Governors
Due to the inefficiency of the Later Mughals many of the governors proclaimed independence and started ruling independently.
Awadh, Bengal and Hyederabad were the major independent states.
The Maratha Empire was founded by Shivaji.
Extended from Punjab to Orissa to Pakistan to Karnataka.
Declined gradually after the Third Battle of Panipat. (1761)
In Search Of Raw Materials and Trade
Europeans in India
The Portuguese in India
The Dutch in India
In 1602, they founded the Dutch East India Company.
They established their trading centres in many places in India.
In 1658, they won Ceylon from Portuguese.
By 1759, their power in India was completely finished.
The French in India
They established the French East India Company.
Set up factories in Surat and Masulipatnam.
Made Pondicherry as their headquarters.
Controlled the Island of Mauritius and Bourbon
Appointed Dupleix as their governor
English East India Company
1691: Got the exemptions of customs duty in Bengal, but had to pay
Rs. 3,000 in return for it.
1698; Built villages in Bengal and built Fort William around it.
By this time, the Mughal power was declining and the Company became powerful.
1615: English Ambassador, Sir Thomas Roe, got the permission to open mor factories in Agra, Broach and Ahmedabad. Was easier to establish factories in the south as there were less opponents.
1639: Established the city of Madras on the piece of the land they got from the Raja of Chandragiri. Built the St. George Fort around the factory.
1650: Got the permission to carry on trade with Bengal.
1661: King Charles 11 allows to issue coins, build forts, maintain army and declare war and peace according to circumstances.
1668: The King hands over the island of Bombay to the Company.
Became supreme naval power after defeating Spanish Armada (1588)
Established East India Company to trade with the Asian Countries.
Hawkins was the ambassador of King James 1; he got a firman from emperor Jahangir to open a factory but was later withdrawn. (And then again re-established)
Rivalry among different companies
The only way the trading companies could flourish was by eliminating the rival companies. the urge to secure markets led to wars.
All the Europeans came to India as traders to make huge profits and the centre for all of them was the same- India.
All the companies were interested in buying the same things. Cotton, silk and spices were of great demand in Europe.
Throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries they regularly sank each others ships, blockaded routes, and prevented rival ships from moving with the supplies of the goods.
Struggle for territories
War with Indian rulers
The Anglo-Mysore wars were a series wars fought in India over the last three decades of the eighteenth-century between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company.
Battle of Plassey (1757 AD)
The Battle of Plassey was fought between the British East India Company and the Nawab of Bengal. (and his French allies)
This battle helped to establish British rule in India for the next two centuries.
It took place on June 23, 1757, at Plassey, West Bengal on the banks of the Bhagirathi river, near Murshidabad.
It was waged during the seven Year's War in Europe. (1756-1763)
Anglo- Maratha wars
It was a series of three wars.
In the Second World War, Sir Arthur Wellesley (Duke of Wellington) won the battles of Assaye and Aragon.
The Charter of East India Company was renewed in 1813.
In 1817, troops under Lord Hastings invaded Maratha kingdom and established the British rule.
Battle of Buxar (1764 AD)
This battle was fought between British east India Company on side and the combined armies of Mir Qasim (Nawab of Bengal); Shuja-ud-Daula (Nawab of Awadh) and shah Alam 11, the Mughal Emperor.
The British East India Company won.
1765: Both Shah Alam and Shuja-ud-Daulah signed the Treaty of Allahabad with the English viceroy, Lord Clive. Under this Treaty, the Company got the rights to collect the diwani from Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. Shuja-ud-Daulah paid Rs. 30 lakhs to regain his Nawabship and agreed to give the areas of Allahabad and Kara to the Mughal Emperor.
Why did the English East India Company confront with Mysore?
Mysore had grown in strength under the leadership of powerful rulers like Haidar Ali and his son Tipu Sultan.
Tipu Sultan had also established a close relationship with the French in India, and modernised his army with their help.
Mysore controlled the profitable trade of the Malabar Coast where the Company purchased pepper and cardamom
Four wars was fought between the Company and Mysore. (1767-69, 1780-84, 1790-92 and 1799).
It was in the Battle of Seringapatnam that the Company ultimately won. Tipu Sultan was killed in this battle.
In 1785 Tipu Sultan stopped the export of cardamom, sandalwood and pepper through the ports of his kingdom, and disallowed local merchants from trading with the Company.
Sir Arthur Wellesley
Relations with the Sikhs
The Sikhs were the finest soldiers in India. they always supported Raja Ranjit Singh to bring the whole of Punjab under his control. He was the chief of Sukrachakia Misl.
He was very brave and strong and was also called as the "Lion Of Punjab" He had a very good personality. He was a great general and a statesman and trained his army with advanced methods.
He brought the whole of Punjab under his control up to the river Sutlej. He also occupied Cis-Sutlej States of Patiala, Nabha and Jind.
After his death, the empire of the Sikhs gradually declined.
Ranjit Singh had also won the respect of the British in India, Ranjit Singh had entered into the Treaty of Amritsar with the English in 1809.
According to it, the Sutlej was considered as the boundary line between the two kingdoms. He then became the Raja of Punjab. His empire also included Peshawar, Multan, Kashmir, Kangra, Hazara, Ladakh and the fort of Jamrud.
But he couldn't capture Sindh due to the opposition of the British.
Administration and services
Judicial Service- Based on Written Laws and Regulations
Lord Hastings set up 2 types of courts namely civil courts and criminal courts. Two Courts of Appeal, Sadar Diwani Adalat, Sadar Nizamath Adalat and a digest of Hindu and Muslim laws were given to the judges.
Racial discrimination existed- British enjoed special privileges.
1833: Rule of Law was passed.
The Civil Service-
Steel frame of British administration in India.
Lord Cornwallis- founder of ICS.
Recruited through competitive exams held at London.
High salary and big position in the society. In the beginning Indians were not allowed to the positions- judicial and engineering post.
Inidans were considered inferior to the British and less salary.
Aimed to establish law and order in the state.
Superintendent was appointed in every district.
Thanes were established.
Discrimination existed amongst Indian and British police.
Played a major role in the expansion of the British rule in India.
It protected the Company from its European rivals.
Conquered territories of the native rulers.
Different salaries for Indians and British; Subedar- highest post for Indians.
The Administration Set-up under the Company
Well organized civil service, police, army and judiciary.
Methods of Expansion
Doctrine of Lapse - Lord Dalhousie
If an Indian ruler did not have a natural heir to the throne, the territory would automatically pass over to the British after the death of the ruler
Sindh, Punjab, Bengal, Mysore, Hyederabad, certain portions of Myanmar and Nepal
Annexed some native states of the false pretext of misgovernment
By Subsidiary Alliance-
(a) Indian rulers would give the British money or territory for the maintenance of the British contingent.
(b) Such rulerswould not enter into any alliance without English permission.
(c) They would keep a British resident at their capital.
(d) They would not employ any non-English European.
(e) In return Company undertook their protection.