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BTEC L3 Anatomy for Sport - Function of the Cardiovascular System

Areas covered: Delivery, removal, thermoregulation, vaso-dilation & constriction
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Abigail Thomasson

on 23 October 2012

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Transcript of BTEC L3 Anatomy for Sport - Function of the Cardiovascular System

FUNCTION OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM:
HEART Delivery of Oxygen and Nutrients The key function of the cardiovascular system is to:
Supply oxygen to tissues
Supply nutrients to tissues
This is done via the blood stream Removal of waste products The circulatory system carries waste products from tissues to the:
Kidneys
Liver
and carbodioxide to the lungs Thermoregulation Increased energy xpenditure during exercise requires adjustments in blood flow that affect the cardiovascular system.

The cardiovascular system is responsible for the distribution and redistribution of heat within your body to maintain thermal balance during exercise Vasodilation During exercise, more blood is needed for the active muscles through dilation of arterioles.

This is called vasodilation.

Vassodilation causes an increase in diameter of blood vessels to decrease resistance to the flow of blood, so more can be supplied to the muscles. Vasoconstriction Blood vessels can temporarily shut down blood flow to tissues.

This is know as vasocontriction.
This causes a decrease in the diameter of blood vessels.

Contraction of involuntary muscle in the vessel walls increases resistance to blood flow.

This prevents blood from getting to tissues. Anatomy for Sport and Exercise Recap: Structure of the Heart
and Cardiac Cycle Students will be able to:

Label a diagram of the heart,

Describe the function of the valves,

Analyse the structure of the heart. Learning Objectives The cardiovascular system is composed of three main parts:

the heart,

the blood vessels

and the blood.

Its function is to deliver oxygen and nutrients and excrete waste products from all the cells of the body. What physiological system does the heart fit into? Structure of the Heart Heart Valves The valves do not open upwards into the atria because their movement is limited by tendinous cords, called chordae tendineae.
They extend from the inferior surface of the cusps to little projections of myocardium covered with endothelium, call papillary muscles. Heart Valves What are the four chambers of the heart called?

What is the function of the valves found between the top and bottom of the chambers of the heart?

Explain why the wall surrounding the bottom chambers appears more muscular than the top chambers? Questions ??? Cardiac cycle FUNCTION OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM:
BLOOD Erythrocytes Platelets are not full cells but rather parts of cells; they act by stopping blood loss through clotting. They become sticky when in contact with the air to form the initial stage of repair to damaged tissue. Platelets

Stafford Brown, Jennifer; Rea, Simon; Manley, Chris. BTEC Level 3 National Sport and Exercise Sciences (3rd Edition).
London, GBR: Hodder Education, 2010. p 23.
http://site.ebrary.com/lib/myerscough/Doc?id=10404262&ppg=38
Copyright © 2010. Hodder Education. All rights reserved. They are red due to a protein called Heamoglobin

Heamoglobin is attracted to oxygen

Thus the role of the red blood cell is to transport oxygen to other body cellsThe natural pacemaker for the heart. Nestled in the upper area of the right atrium, it sends the electrical impulse that triggers each heartbeat. The impulse spreads through the atria, prompting the cardiac muscle tissue to contract in a coordinated, wavelike manner.A bundle of specialised fibres in the heart that transmit the cardiac impulses from the atria to the ventricles. Leucocytes Are transparant, and at a ratio of 1:700 red blood cells

Leucocytes fight infection, and are part of the bodies immune system

They will destroy bacteria and remove bacteria from the body PLATELETS Platelets are parts of other cells

They act by stopping blood loss through clotting

They become sticky when in contact with the air to form the initial stage of repairto damaged tissue How the Cardiac Cycle Occurs Cardiac Cycle Atrio Ventricular Bundle (HIS Bundle) Perkinje Fibres Sino-Atrial Node (SAN) (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Contraction and Relaxion of the Heart SYSTOLE [sis´to-le]
The contraction, or period of contraction, of the heart, especially of the ventricles, during which blood is forced into the aorta and pulmonary artery.

DIASTOLE [di-as´to-le]
The phase of the cardiac cycle in which the heart relaxes between contractions; specifically, the period when the two ventricles are dilated by the blood flowing into them. The natural pacemaker for the heart.

Nestled in the upper area of the right atrium, it sends the electrical impulse that triggers each heartbeat.

The impulse spreads through the atria, prompting the cardiac muscle tissue to contract in a coordinated, wavelike manner. The atrio ventricular node (AVN), The impulse that originates from the sino atrial node strikes AV node, which is situated in the lower section of the right atrium.

The AV node in turn sends an impulse through the nerve network to the ventricles, initiating the same wavelike contraction of the ventricles. A bundle of specialised fibres in the heart that transmit the cardiac impulses from the atria to the ventricles. These are found in the inner ventricular walls of the heart, beneath the endocardium.

These fibres are specialised myocardial fibres that conduct an electrical stimulus, enabling the heart to contract in a rhythmical routine
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