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Nature of Matter

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Amy Van Gundy

on 9 September 2015

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Transcript of Nature of Matter

The Chemistry of Life
Nature of Matter
Properties of Water
Carbon Compounds
Carbon atoms have 4 valence electrons.....they need 4 more to make them stable and 'happy'!
Carbon can bond to other carbon atoms.

Chemical Reactions and Enzymes
Atom
Derived from the Greek word - 'atomos' - unable to cut
Composed of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons

Chemical Bonds
how compounds are held together
involve electrons that surround each atomic nucleus.
The electrons that are available to bond are called
valence electrons
.
Compounds
Combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions
Noted in Chemical formulas
The physical and chemical properties of a compound are usually very different from the properties of the elements they are composed of.
Nucleus
center of the atom
composed of protons and neutrons
mass number = sum of protons and neutrons
The # of protons in an atom designates the element's atomic number.
Have a (+) charge
Protons
Neutrons
Carry no charge (neutral)
Bond strongly with protons to form the ______ of an atom
Like....Switzerland!
Electrons
Negatively charged particle
In constant motion in the space SURROUNDING the nucleus.
Equal in numbers to protons,
Elements
Pure substance that is composed entirely of one type of atom.
Isotopes
When atoms of the same element differ in #'s of NEUTRONS
Defined by mass number
Still have the same # of electrons = same chemical properties
Radioactive isotopes
Unstable
Break down at a constant rate over time
dihydrogen oxide.
Otherwise known as...
Ionic Bonds
When 1 or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
Ions
Result from an ionic bond
An atom that LOSES an electron has a _______ charge.
An atom that GAINS an electron has a _______ charge.
The attraction between oppositely charged ions creates an ionic bond
Covalent Bonds
Formed when atoms "share" an electron.
The result is a
MOLECULE
moving electrons actually travel in the orbitals of each atom.
C12
van der Waals forces
weakest of the bonds
can hold molecules together...especially if they are large
Water is liquid at the temperatures over much of the Earth's surface.
water EXPANDS as it freezes

ice is less dense than liquid water
Water Molecule
Inherently neutral...like all molecules
BUT
Polarity
Oxygen has 8 protons
Hydrogen has 1
Meaning.......
At any one time, it is more likely to find the shared electrons near the oxygen atom
Uneven distribution of
electrons results in polarity
therefore...
Hydrogen Bonds
The polarity of a water molecule gives it the ability to form multiple hydrogen bonds
Cohesion -
attraction between molecules of the same substance
Adhesion -
attraction between molecules of different substances
Mixtures, Solutions and Suspensions
Solutions
All of the components of a solution are distributed EVENLY throughout
Solute - substance that is dissolved

Solvent - substance in which the solute is dissolved.
Ocean (Saltwater)
Solute?
Solvent?
Vinegar
Solute?
Solvent?
Air
Solute? Solvent?
Suspensions
When materials are mixed with water but do not dissolve
Acids, Bases and pH
Water molecules can react to produce H+ and OH- ions.
Acid - any compound that forms H+ ions in solution.
Base - compound that produces OH- ions in solution.
pH Scale
measurement system to indicate the concentration of H+ ions.
Macromolecules
Large compounds (polymers) are built by joining smaller ones (monomers) together.
4 groups in living things
Consist mainly of C,H,O,N,P
Carbohydrates
composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Main source of energy for living things.
Monosaccharides
Singular sugar molecules.
Polysaccharides
Large macromolecule formed by linking monosaccharides together
Lipids
not soluble in water
important for membranes and waterproofing, and energy storage
made up of glycerol and fatty acid chains
Nucleic Acids
Contain hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), and Phosphorus (P).
Polymers assembled from NUCLEOTIDE monomers.
Store and transmit hereditary (genetic) information.
Nucleotides
Consist of 3 parts:

5 C sugar
Phosphate group
Nitrogenous base
Joined by covalent bonds to form nucleic acids
DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid
Contains the sugar, deoxyribose
Double stranded
RNA - Ribonucleic Acid
Contains the sugar, ribose
Single stranded
Huh? What's the big deal?!
PROTEIN!!!!!
Proteins
Contains C,H,O, and N
Polymers of molecules called - amino acids.
Amino Acids
Shape determines the function of the protein
20 AAs make up different proteins
9 are considered essential (must get from diet)
Instructions for arranging AAs into proteins are stored in DNA
Classes of proteins
Enzymes
- help speed up chemical reactions in our bodies w/o being changed itself.
Keratin
- makes up hair and nails.
Collagen
- makes up bone and cartilage.
Transport
- to move molecules across a membrane.
Contractile
- provide muscular movement.
Storage
- egg white (source of AA for developing embryo.
Defensive
- antibodies, blood clotting,
Signal
- hormones.
Chemical Reactions
Process that changes, or transforms one set of chemicals into another.
involve
REACTANTS
- elements/compounds that enter into a reaction &
PRODUCTS
- elements/compounds that are produced.
Always involve changes in the chemical bonds that join atoms.
Energy in reactions
Some reactions release energy.
Some reactions absorb (use) energy in order to occur.
Plants
Get energy needed for chemical reactions by trapping and storing energy from the sun.
Animals
obtain energy needed for chemical reactions by eating plants or other animals.
Activation Energy
Sometimes reactions that release energy need a little boost to get them going, this requires energy.
Enzymes
Proteins that act as
catalysts
for reactions in the cell.
Catalysts
- lower activation energy required for reactions, speeding up the reaction.
Very specific
Enzyme Action
Enzyme - Substrate Complex - provides a site for the reactants (
substrates
) to come together.
Regulation of Enzyme Activity
Enzymes can be affected by:
pH
temperature

most human enzymes work best at 37°C
Mixture
Material with 2 or more elements that are physically mixed together, but NOT CHEMICALLY
Made with water
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