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Methods and Approaches in Teaching English as a Second Langu

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Ebru Mattox

on 28 February 2014

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Transcript of Methods and Approaches in Teaching English as a Second Langu

The Grammar-Translation Method
This method was brought up by Johann Seidenstücker, Karl Plötz, H.S. Ollendar and Johann Meidinger in Europe.
It was popular between the 1840s and 1940s.
As a result of increasing popularity of English and French, and their appearance in the school curricula, this method which derived from classical method of teaching Greek and Latin was used by teachers in schools.
Learning a language to read its literature is the goal of this method.
Methods and Approaches in Language Teaching

Ebru Mattox

Grammar is taught deductively with details.
Reading and writing are the focus while no attention is given to speaking and listening.
Vocabulary depends on the texts and is taught by direct translation.

The way of application of the language is to translate texts into/out of the target language.
The native language of the students is the language of instruction.
Accuracy in translation is expected.
Fluency in speaking is not expected.
It is a teacher-centered method.
It leads students to frustration and boredom.

An opposition started against
Grammar-Translation Method
in the mid- and late 19th century. The more opportunities for communication among European countries increased the more demand for oral proficiency in foreign languages appeared. The reformers of the century mentioned needs for a new approach. They believed that
the spoken language is essential and should be taught,
learners should hear the language before reading it,
grammar should be taught inductively,
translation should be avoided.
All these beliefs and attempts to overcome the weakness of the Grammar Translation Method led to the development of a new method,
Direct Method
.


It is also known as The Berlitz Method, The Anti-Grammatical Method, The Reform Method, and The Natural Method.
It became popular in Europe between the middle 1800s and early 1920s and gained popularity in the U.S by its use by L. Sauveur and Maximilian Berlitz.
Naturalistic principles of language learning which attempted to make the second language learning more like first language learning caused its development.

Target language is the language of instruction.
Meaning should be conveyed through demonstration, objects, pictures, and action and connected directly with the target language rather than translation into the native language.

To know a language means to be able to speak it.
DIRECT METHOD
Grammar is taught inductively.
Everyday vocabulary is the target vocabulary.
Listening comprehension and speaking are supported.
Correct pronunciation is emphasized
.
Self-correction is done by making choices that presented by the teacher.
Instead of memorization, production is supported.
Reading aloud, Q-A exercises, conversation practice, fill in the blanks exercises, dictation activities are the main techniques.
Direct Method vs. Grammar-
Translation Method
Teaches the language through speaking with inductive grammar teaching.
Vocabulary is learned through practice.
Learners are active speakers.
Encourages students.
Oral communication skills are taught.
Teaches the language via its grammar rules that are taught deductively
.
Vocabulary is learned through translation.
Learners are inactive.
Discourages and frustrates students.
Reading and writing skills are taught.
The Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching (SLT)
Harold Palmer and A. S. Hornby brought up this method to develop a more scientific foundation for an oral approach to teaching English that was missing in
Direct Method
.
It began in the 1920s and 1930s and was developed until 1960s.
Both speech and structure are the basis of the language and speaking ability. It is based on the theory
Structuralism
.
It is also based on the Behaviorism theory which means language learning is a habit-formation. Learning a language is;



and correct speech habits should be essential. Learners should not get the habit of making mistakes.
using it in actual practice until it becomes a personal skill.
Receiving language and materials
fixing it in the memory by repetition
Teaches practical command of four skills of a language through structure.
Material is taught orally before written presentation.
Switch is made from simple forms to complex forms.
Accuracy in grammar is expected and mistakes are avoided.
Learners start inactive as listeners and repeaters then, become more active by initiating responses , asking questions.
Students are challenged to use their critical thinking and kinesthetic abilities by working collaboratively with other students.
Teachers are active.They sets the situation, models the structure, selects situations that are realistic.
Vocabulary is regarded as one of the most important aspects of the language learning.

Although this method was developed to base teaching on a more scientific foundation for oral proficiency than the
Direct Method
did, there were many similarities between the two methods.
As in the
Direct Method
, in
Situational Language Learning
, target language is the language of instruction and grammar is taught inductively. Correct pronunciation is crucial in both methods.

However, this method was questioned later as a result of its emphasis on structure more than its emphasis on speaking. This (as well as dissatisfaction from the
Audiolingual Method
) led researches to develop another method that focused more on speaking abilities known as
Communicative Language Te
aching.
The Audiolingual Method
It was develeoped
1. as a result of the need for foreign language programs for personnel from other countries after U.S. involvement in WWII (it is also known as the Army Method)
and
2. as a result of the increase in the number of foreign students in the U.S. who required training in English.
Robert Lado and Nelson Brooks are the leaders of this method.
It came to being in mid 1950s.
Similar to
Direct Method
, rather than methodological basis, it derived as a result of the intensity contact with the target language.
Audiolingualism
is a combination
of;
Aural Training
Pronunciation Training
Speaking
Reading
Writing
2.Behaviorism
Organism (Foreign Language Learner)
Stimulus (What is taught/presented)
Response Behavior (Learner's Reaction to Stimulus)
Reinforcement (behavior likely
to occur again and become a habit)
No/Negative Reinforcement(behavior not likely to occur again)
Starting point is the linguistic syllabus and it contains key items of phonology, morphology, and syntax of the language.
Memorization of dialogues and pattern drills is focused.
Learners are imitators and not encouraged to start interacting since it can cause mistakes.
Teachers are active and interactions are teacher-directed. Teachers models, controls, monitors, and corrects.
Stress, rhythm, and intonation are supported.
1.The Aural-Oral Approach
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
British functional linguist Halliday and American sociolinguist Dell Hymes were the advocates of this approach.
It was originated in late 1960s.
It derived from the need of communication in a foreign language when
Audiolingualism Method
and
Situational Language Teaching
were not enough to response this need because both emphasized on the structure more than communicative proficiency.
It starts from a theory of language as communication.
The primary function of language is to allow interaction and communication.
The goal of language learning is to develop communicative competence (CC).

Hymes' CC
vs.
Chomsky's CC
what a speaker needs to know

an ideal speaker-listener who

in order to be communicatively is unaffected by grammatically
competent, irrelevant conditions
acquisition of both knowledge deals with primarily with abstract
and ability. grammatical knowledge.

Elements of Learning Theory of CLT
Communication Principle:
Activities that involve
real communication
promote learning.
Task Principle:
Activities in which language is used for completing meaningful tasks promote learning.

Meaningfulness Principle:
Language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process.
Activities are divided in two categories:
Functional Communication Activities
such as comparing the similarities and differences between the pictures, following directions, and discovering missing features in a map or a picture.
Social Interaction Activities
such as conversations, discussions, dialogues, roleplays, debates, and skits.
Learners are expected to interact with each other, should contribute as much as they gain and should learn in an independent way.
Teachers facilitate the communication and act as an independent participant with in the learning-teaching group.
Translation and native language may be used as long as students benefit from it.
Mistakes are tolerated.
Students are expected to interact with the teacher and other students.

Similar to the Direct Method, Audiolingual Method and Situational Method;
target language is the language of instruction.

Similar to the Audiolingual Method and SLL;
learning in context is essential.
The Silent Way
It was developed by Caleb Gattegno in 1963.
It became popular between 1980s and early 1990s.
According to Gattegno, learners cannot learn a second language in the same way they learned their native language because of what they 'now' knows. Therefore, he rejected
Direct Method.
It supports the notion 'learning to learn' in silence for concentration.
Learning should be discovery and creation which helps the intellectual potency and problem solving abilities of learners.
Basic elements of target language is taught.
Native-like pronunciation and fluency are expected.
Color-coded (pronunciation) charts, colored Cuisenaire rods, pointer are used to visualize language.
Teachers model and students create their own utterances by combining old and new information.
There is not direct correction, students are expected to correct their own mistakes as a result of collaborative learning.
Total Physical Response (TPR)
"
Babies don't learn by memorizing lists; why should children or adults?" says James Asher who developed this method in the U.S.
According to TPR, second language acquisition is parallel to the first language.
Conversation between the teacher and students should be just like the one between parents and a child consisting of imperative drills and commands.
It aims to teach language by using physical movement which is believed to reduce students' affective filter.
To teach basic speaking skills and train language learners who can communicate with native speakers in natural/meaningful way.
Teachers are very active as performers.
Learners are inactive as listener and performers at first, become more active gradually.
Focus is given to the meaning rather than the structure.
Suggestopedia
Bulgarian psychiatrist-educator Georgi Lozanov developed this method by focusing on the idea how the human brain works and how we learn most effectively.
Arrangement of the classroom (semi-circle is created by the chairs so that students do not face each other but the board and pay more attention), the use of music, drama, art and authoritative behavior of the teacher are the main characteristics of the method.
Music is believed to energize and relax learners thus, is used in the lessons.
Light of the classroom is dim.
Rather than structure, content is emphasized.
It has five theoretical components:
Authority
: it is believed that authoritative figure supports learning,
Infantilization
: Relation between the teacher and the student should be like the way between the parent and child.
Double planedness
: Not only the instruction but also the decor of the class, musical background, and personality of the teacher are important.
Intonation and Rhythm
: Variation of tone and rhythm prevents boredom and monotony
.
Concert-pseudo passiveness:
Musical background creates relaxed environment and fosters learning.
Community Language Learning (CLL)
It is developed by Charles A. Curran and his associates.
Its origin is based on the counseling-learning theory with the application of psychological techniques.
It is suggested for learners with high affective filters.
CLL techniques give importance to whole person learning by including feelings as well as linguistic knowledge and behavioral skills.

Relation between the teacher and student is like the relation between the counselor and client.
Syllabus is topic based, learners nominate the ideas they would like to talk and the teacher translates.
Teachers have a supportive role, help learners understand the language.
Learners are careful listeners, become members of the community and work collaboratively.
SARD
is the acronym for the ideas that are related to psychological requirements for achievement in learning.
S-A-R-D
for
security
for
attention and aggression
for
retention
and reflection
denotes discrimination
ExC-ell
ExC-ell stands for Expediting Comprehension for English Language Learners and was develop by Margarita Calderon.
It consists of instructional strategies that help ELL with their reading, writing, and vocabulary to foster their academic learning.
One of the goals is to help students with their vocabulary to support their reading skills.

Vocabulary Tiers
Tier 1:
Basic words
to communicate,
read, and write.
Tier 2:
Polysemous words,
transition words,
more sophisticated words.
Tier 3:
Subject-specific words, academic words.
An immediate reading activity follows teaching 5-6 words each day for 10-15 minutes.
To support and teach vocabulary permanently reading, summarizing, and writing should be incorporated in the lesson.
Teachers' read and think aloud, modeling, teaching comprehension strategies foster learning.
Students correct their own mistakes.
Activities such as partner reading, roundtable, and writearound teach students how to work collaboratively.
WIDA
WIDA stands for World-Class Instructional Desing and Assessment.
WIDA derived after an Enhanced Assessment Grant was awarded to the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, WIDA's first home in 2003.
It aims to help linguistically diverse students with their language development and academic achievement through high quality standards, assessments, research, and professional development for educators.
It recognizes that English language development is variable and depends on different factors.
It includes "Can Do" descriptors that help ESL teachers plan lessons and observe students' progress, empower students' success, coach general education teachers about differentiated instruction for English language learners.
WIDA has also 6 "Can Do Philosophy" statements. They accentuates the positive qualities and assets of English Language Learners.
WIDA talks about the importance of the vocabulary for comprehension of the text which depends on knowing 95% of the words in a text.
WIDA has Tier words.
Tier 1 includes every day speech words, Tier 2 includes general academic words, and Tier 3 includes content-specific words.
WIDA has five ELP standards that addresses a specific context for language acquisition.

1. Social and Instructional Language,
2. Language of Language of Arts,
3. Language of Mathematics,
4. Language of Science,
5. Language of Social Studies.

The WIDA ELP scale;

Entering
Beginning
Emerging
Developing
Expanding
Bridging
Reaching
Concrete
Explicit
Familiar
General
Abstract
Implicit
Unfamiliar
Technical
LinguaFolio
It is a formative assessment tool that was developed by members of National Council of State Supervisors for languages.
It is the result of a transatlantic dialogues among members of the council of Europe and delegates from the European Ministries of Education, and representatives from the state departments of Education in the U.S.
The dialogues began in 2002.
It was developed using criteria from the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines and Performance Guidelines for K-12 learners, and closely aligned with the Common European Framework of Reference for languages to create a "user-friendly" tool for language learners and their teachers.
It explains what students can do with the language and offers a much clearer description of language abilities than test scores.
Linguafolio has three components:
1. Language Biography:
where the self-assessment checklists, information about student's language background, and intercultural activities are recorded.
2. Language Dossier:
where samples of a student's work are achieved.
3. Language Passport:
where formal self-assessment and student's self-assessments are documented.
Linguafolio helps students
evaluate and describe their language proficiency in clear and simple terms,
document and reflect on language learning both inside and outside the classroom setting,
set out language objectives,
display their proficiency in different languages when changing schools, applying for jobs/exchange programs/summer language programs.
LinguaFolio helps teachers
identify the needs and motivations of individual language learners,
develop programs based on learner strengths and needs,
obtain information about students' previous learning experiences,
evaluate and document performance in a different way other than test scores,
produce evidence of language learners.

Similar to ExC-ell;
LinguaFolio has "Can Do" statements.

SIOP
SIOP stands for Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol.
It is developed by Dr. Jana Echevarria, Dr. Mary Ellen Vogt, and Dr. Deborah Short.
It offers an empirically validated approach to teaching.
Its goal is to improve academic content and language skills, increase student success, and prepare them for college and career.
SIOP is good teaching!


Similar to
Situational Language Learning
,
its theory of learning is based on
Behaviorism,
the language of instruction is the target language,
language is presented orally before its written form,
essential vocabulary is priority and is taught in context,
grammar is taught inductively,
correct pronunciation is expected.
Similar to
Direct Method, the Audiolingual Method, SLL, and CLT;
grammar is taught inductively.

Similar to
CLT
;
mistakes are tolerated, students figure out and correct their own mistakes.

Similar to the
Audiolingual Method, SLL, and Direct Method;
correct (native-like) pronunciation is supported.

Similar to Direct Method;
It is supported that learning a second language should be be like child's learning his first language. That is why Direct Method is also knows as Natural Method.

Similar to the Audiolingual Method;
Drills are used as primary activities.

Similar to the methods that are covered so far (aside from the Grammar-Translation Method)
;
Grammar is taught inductively.


Similar to SLL;
Students are inactive first, gradually become more active.

Similar to the Silent Way;
Teachers model the language (teachers are not silent in TPR), students are expected to combine old and new material.

Similar to CLT;
Mistakes are tolerated and students correct their own mistakes,
It is not strict about the use of native language in among students,
Translation into/out of the native language may be used to help students.

Similar to TPR;
Focus is more on the context/meaning rather than structure.

Similar to the Silent Way;
Cooperative learning is the theory of learning.

Similar to CLT;
Native language is okay to be used in the classroom.

Similar to Suggestopedia and Grammar-Translation Method;
Translation is provided for learners.
Similar to the Silent Way and Suggestopedia;
Cooperative learning is very important to learning.

Similar to the SLL;
Vocabulary is crucial for learning a language and for reading abilities.

Similar to TPR, CLT and Suggestopedia;
There is no direct correction by the teacher. Students correct their own mistakes.

Similar to TPR;
Teachers model the vocabulary.
WIDA
Bridging
Reaching
Abstract
Implicit
Unfamiliar
Technical
Similar to ExC-ell;
WIDA has vocabulary tiers.

Similar to SLL and ExC-ell;
WIDA supports that vocabulary has a big impact on language learning and reading.

It has eight components:

1. Preparation
2. Building Background
3. Comprehensible Input
4. Strategies
5. Interaction
6. Practice
7. Lesson Delivery
8. Assessment
Similar to the Silent Way and ExC-ell;
Its 'Interaction' component includes activities that support cooperative learning.

Similar to the ExC-ell's Tier 2 words;
Its 'Building Background' component focuses on the importance of polysemous words.

Similar to TPR;
Its 'Comprehensible Input' component supports modeling in language teaching.

Similar to CLT, TPR, Suggestopedia, and ExC-ell;
Teachers are advised to avoid immediate correction. Students correct their own mistakes.
References
Richard. J & Rodgers T., 2012. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

WIDA Consortium. English Language Proficiency Standards and Resource Guide. 2007 Edition.

esl.ncwiseowl.org.

www.wida.us.

www.cal.org/siop/.

www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/LinguaFolio.

http://wlnces.ncdpi/wikispaces.net/ESL+LinguaFolio+Materials.


THANK YOU!
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