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APUSH: Chapter 30
Transcript of APUSH: Chapter 30
War by Act of Germany
In January 22, 1917, Woodrow Wilson tried to avert war with Germany by delivering a moving address, claiming a "peace without victory".
Germany responded by attempting to break the Sussex pledge and returning to unrestricted submarine warfare. Wilson then asked Congress to arm merchant ships, but senators opposed the idea.
The Zimmerman note was later intercepted and published on March 1, 1917. It proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico. If Mexico and the Central Powers won the battle against the U.S., then Mexico would recover Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.
Germans continued their threats and pushed President Wilson into asking Congress for a declaration of war.
Congress agreed to the war, much to Wilson's dismay; he had hoped to stay out of the fight.
Wilson's Fourteen Points
In order to gain citizens' support in entering the war, Wilson claimed to enter the war in order to "make the world safe for democracy".
On January 8, 1917, Wilson delivered his Fourteen Points Address to Congress. It was a set of idealistic goals for peace. The main points are:
No more secret treaties.
Freedom of the seas was to be maintained.
A removal of economic barriers among nations.
Reduction of armament burdens.
Adjustment of colonial claims in the interests of natives and colonizers.
"Self-determination", or independence for oppressed minority groups who'd choose their government.
A League of Nations, an international organization that would keep the peace and settle world disputes.
Although the Germans in America remained loyal to the U.S., many of them were blamed for espionage activities.
In response, the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918 were created, showing American fears and paranoia toward German threats.
In times of crisis, the U.S. limits individual liberties.
America began to assist the European Allies by creating an army of four million men and women, all through drafts. African-Americans were allowed in the army, but they were assigned to non-combat duty.
The 18th Amendment, prohibition of slavery, was created when self-sacrifice began to increase. Herbert Hoover, the head of the Food Administration, lead a successful voluntary food drive.
Women began to find more opportunities in the workplace, since men were going to war.
Women's suffrage gained so much support that the 19th Amendment passed in 1920. The Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act of 1921 was also made, financing instruction in maternal and infant health care.
Fourteen Points Disarm Germany
On November 11, 1918, the Germans laid down their arms in armistice in hopes for a peace based on the Fourteen Points.
This "Armistice Day" later became "Veterans' Day".
In actuality, it was the endless amount of American troops -- not the military performance -- that demoralized the Germans.
Conflict over the treatment of Germany was noted, and Wilson attempted to heal wounds through the League of Nations and the Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty of Versailles was much opposed by the U.S. Republicans.
Said treaty was forced upon Germany under a threat: if Germany didn't sign the treaty, then the war would resume.
The Betrayal of Great Expectations
In truth, the U.S.'s isolationism had doomed the Treaty of Versailles. It indirectly led to World War II: France -- without an ally -- built a large military force, and Germany grew fearful enough to illegally do the same.
Germany's suffering and disorder of the time was used by Adolf Hitler to seize power in Germany, building up popularity and essentially dragging Europe into war.
To many, it was the U.S.'s responsibility to take charge as the most powerful nations in the world post-World War I, but it merely retreated back into isolationism.
Ironically enough, it was such actions that eventually led the U.S. into World War II.
Enforcing Loyalty and Stiffing Dissent
Forging a War Economy