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The Industrial Revolution in Europe, Russia, and Japan
Transcript of The Industrial Revolution in Europe, Russia, and Japan
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period form about 1760 to sometimes between 1820 and 1840.
-Lead to the modern capitalist economy
-Altered the daily lives of all people
-Increase in per capita income
-Economic and social gap
-Increase in life expectancy
-Increase in population
-Increase in political participation
The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain after a series of smaller events.
Gains in important technologies:
-Textile: mechanized cotton spinning was powered by steam or water and increased the output of a worker 1,000 fold.The power loom increased the output by a factor of over 40, while the cotton gin increased productivity by a factor of 50.
-Steam power: Became the main source of energy for early engines, expanding and advancing transportation.
-Iron making: Became ubiquitous and a commodity within the economy. Used for construction and transportation purposes.
Energy and metal
-Wood began to be replaced with coal on the basis of more output for less input and availability
-Iron imports fell as a result of increased iron-making technologies and methods
-Advancements in steel would soon lead to steel's rise to commodity status
-Iron and steel making led to other industries
-Steam power helped lead to the development of the engine, which were fueled by steam and would power locomotives and steam boats.
-Large scale production of chemicals was an important development during the Industrial Revolution
-Helped lead to an increase in economic output
-Led to mass production
-Helped such sectors as: glass, textile, soap, paper
-Cement: mass produced and helped infrastructure and construction
-Gas lighting: mass produced. Allowed factories to stay open longer and opened a new spectrum to city life.
-Glass making: advanced engineering methods and designs. Large glass panels were produced.
Agriculture and Mining
-Agriculture allowed for specialization and urbanization with advanced technologies that decreased the amount of labor needed for farming
-Agriculture was affected by the seed drill, the Dutch plow, iron, and the threshing machine
-Mining production increased with the invention of the steam pump and engine, enabling miners to dig deeper and to extract more coal
-Canals:Began to be built in the late 18th century. Increased commerce and allowed for commodities to maintain their status. Succeeded by the railroad.
-Roads: Turnpikes became increasingly popular and allowed for road maintenance and expansion. Made traveling easier.
-Railroads: Became commercially popular by the early 19th century. More successful than road travel because of friction. Used in mines and for large scale transportation of goods and people.
Belgium was the second country in Europe
in which the Industrial Revolution took place
and the first nation in continental Europe.
The Industrial Revolution became prominent during the mid 1820s, and paramount after Belgium's independence in 1830.
Belgium became the world's second industrial power, after Britain.
Belgium became a very urbanized nation as a result of the Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution in France lasted from the late 18th century through the 19th century and was a rather slow, however steady process compared to the processes that happened in Britain and Belgium.
Often times the French Industrial Revolution is split into four stages:
1) French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars (1789-1815)
2) Industrialization (1815-1860)
3) Economic slowdown (1860-1905)
4) Renewal of the growth after 1905
Germany was a global leader in chemical research in universities and industrial labs.
Political disunity between German states did not allow railroad construction on a national level. German engineers did not have enough advanced knowledge initially to build railroads anyways. However, by 1850 Germany was self-sufficient in meeting the demands of railroad construction and railways allowed for major economic growth.
The Industrial Revolution began in Japan under the Meiji period around 1870. It began the Japanese leaders wanted to catch up to the West.
The government build railroads and improved roads. It also inaugurated a new Western- based education system for the youth, sent thousands of students to the United States and Europe, and hired more than 3,000 Westerners to teach modern science, mathematics, technology, and foreign languages in Japan.
The Bank of Japan, founded in 1877, used taxes to fund model steel and textile factories. Education was expanded and japanese students were sent to study abroad in the West.
The Meiji molded Japan into a global industrial and modern power. The Japanese economy allowed for mass production and complex infrastructure. Railway construction began in the early 1870s and grew exponentially across the island nation.
The Industrial Revolution hit the Russian Empire later than most other European and Western nations.
The emancipation of the serfs in 1861 aided Russia in its transition from a predominantly agricultural society to a more industrialized society. The newly feed commoners looked toward the cities for jobs.
The initial phase of the Russian segment of the Industrial Revolution began in the 1880s with the establishment of large scale factories that produced textiles and steel, while coal mining became increasingly important.
The steel was used to construct railways while textiles were used for uniforms, mainly for the Russian military.
The Trans-Siberian Railway, a vast railroad project carried out by the Russian government in order to bolster a more efficient process for the Russian domestic trade and military, was constructed from 1891 to 1916.
Working conditions and low wages that employees were subjected to eventually led to reform and to the formation of radical political parties.
With the outbreak of World War 1 in 1914 and the immediate Russian involvement, the Russian military and government needed a copious supply of goods and money for the war effort.
By the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian government initiated programs to protect Russian industries with the implementation of tariffs, while the Russian banking system was reformed in order to keep up with the new industrial and economic system.