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Chapter 5: Perception, cognition and emotion.

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Carlos Recordon

on 22 September 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 5: Perception, cognition and emotion.

PERCEPTION "The process of screening, selecting and interpreting stimuli, so that they have meaning in the individual" (Steers, 1984, p.98) PERCEPTUAL ERRORS OR DISTORTIONS Stereotypes

Halo Effect

Selective Perception

It occurs when one individual assigns attributes to another solely on the basis of the other´s membership in a particular social or demographic category. Occurs when people generalize about a variety of attributes based on the knowledge of one attribute of an individual. (Copper, 1981) When the perceiver singles out certain information that supports or reinforces a prior belief. When people assign to others the characteristics or feelings that they possess themselves. FRAMING INTERESTS
POWER Depending on how you frame the negotiation
you can expect different outcomes. COGNITIVE BIASES IN NEGOTIATION: Irrational escalation of commitment:
Mythical Fixed-Pie beliefs
Issue Framing and Risk:
Negotiators sometimes maintain commitment to a course of action even when that commitment constitutes irrational behavior on their part. (A country that continues to pour military resources into an unwinnable armed conflict) Imagine the following scenario:

You are currently making: 47,000
Your potential employer´s initial offer to you is: 52.000

Risk averse
(Because the issue is framed as a gain)

You want to make: 55,000
Your potential employer´s initial offer to you is 52,000.
(Because the issue is framed as a loss)

This example is easy to understand but…
It is important to use this information: You have to be able to REALIZE the way other parties are framing the situation because you might settle if you perceive a gain… on the other hand you need to design strategies to help the other parties perceive gains and settle.

Reactive devaluation: Fundamental attribution error: Endowment Effect:

Ignoring other´s cognitions:
A tendency to overestimate the causal role of personal or internal factors and underestimate the causal role of situational or external factors.
The tendency to overvalue something you own or believe you possess. Make sure to understand the way the other party is perceiving the situation. (THIS IS THE TRICK) the process of devaluating the other party´s concessions simply because the other party made them.
Let us work with some material... BOX 5.4 Obviously… negotiations create both positive and negative emotions

Positive emotions generally have positive consequences for negotiations

Negative emotions generally have negative consequences for negotiations


Positive feelings may have negative consequences:

Negotiators in positive mood may be less likely to examine closely the other party´s arguments, as a result they may be more susceptible to a competitive opponent´s deceptive tactic.

Negative feelings may create positive outcomes: anger and other negative emotions can serve as a danger signal that motivates both parties to confront the problem directly and search for a resolution.
AND 5.5
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