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Butterfly Pavillion Extra Credit Project (Joy Wineman Jordan Canella and Jackie Turner)

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Joy Wineman

on 5 December 2012

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Transcript of Butterfly Pavillion Extra Credit Project (Joy Wineman Jordan Canella and Jackie Turner)

Introduction Outline: Critter Corner Life is the Bubbles Being the four brave adventurers that we are, we could imagine no better place to investigate biology than Westminster's Butterfly Pavilion. We embarked on this journey as open minded and eager students, whether that be in the 12th or 1st grade. We left this experience with a better understanding and perspective on conservation, symbiosis, and adaptation We dove into three specific areas of study:
arachnids and insects
sea creatures
and moths and butterflies (of course) Our Butterfly Pavillion Excursion The critters we observed fell into one of four categories. These categories were detritivores, carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Within each group we observed lots of unique adaptations that allow the specific organism to thrive in its environment.

Upside down Jelly: Cassiopeia sp.
This jelly swims upright, but turns over when resting on the ocean floor. Like many other jellies, its body is made up of mostly water (carnivore) (shallow waters of the southern gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and other tropical regions) Jackie Turner, Jordan Canella, and Joy Wineman Symbiosis is two living organisms of different species interacting with each other, typically for prolonged amounts of time.
Symbiosis often involves the biological interactions between the two species. Many sea creatures have evolved over thousands of years. The advantageous adaptations allow these organisms to avoid the natural selection process. Alterations in the structures of their bodies also help the organism become more efficient. Detritivores:
These are organisms which obtain nutrients by ingesting portions of matter and decomposing them to extract nutrients. They differ from other decomposers (bacteria, fungi, and protists) in that they are able to ingest the matter, rather than simply living by it and absorbing it through their skin as typical decomposers do. Ecosystems An Example of a Detritivore that we Observed Some examples of carnivores that we saw: <- Greenbottle Blue Tarantula (chromatopelma cyaneopubesscens). This arachnid is uniquley colored to help it blend into the grasslands. Cameroon Red Tarantula (hysterocrates gigas). This tarantula is particularly reclusive. They are known to have strong hind legs to help them to burrow elaborate underground tunnels. -> Herbivores: These organisms have specific structures that allow them to eat a diet made up of mostly autotrophs (plants). An Example of an herbivore that we observed: The Indian Walking Stick (carausius morosis). This species sways when perched on a branch to simulate that branch being blown by the wind. This helps it to avoid detection by predators. In the case that the Indian walking stick is discovered by a predator, it will feign death to avoid being eaten. The algae and photosynthetic plankton in the oceans produce the majority of the atmosphere's oxygen.

Fish is consumed by humans on a regular basis. Fish is a vital part of the diet because fish contain iodine which is essential to the health of the thymus in the body. Marine Life ecosystems are drastically effected by human activity. There are many harmful and damaging activities that humans partake in which result in detrimental effects on the marine organisms. Many organism's habitats become destroyed and inhabitable due to oil spills. Sometimes the marine organisms, such as penguins, will get trapped within the oil causing restricted movements. The marine creatures tend to ingest the oil which has horrifying results. Plastics and other trash that is discarded in the ocean can be ingested by turtles and dolphins and cause irregularity in their digestive tract. Some plastics will get caught around the necks or gills of some organisms and prevent respiration and cause them to suffocate. The plastics and trash can get tangled in the extremities of the marine organisms and constrain their locomotion.
Global warming effects marine life vastly. The release of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will cause the ice bergs to melt over time. Many organisms thrive in the freezing temperatures. These organisms have taken hundreds of years to adapt to the frigid temperatures. The temperature of the Earth is slowing increasing resulting in the poles becoming warmer. With environments becoming warmer, some organisms are losing their habitat while others are not able to adapt to the temperature alterations which produces a homeostatic imbalance in their bodies. Marine organisms contribute to a wide variety of ecosystems. For example.... Negative Effects on the
Marine Ecosystem Crustaceans The ridged slipper lobster lacks claws and possess a wide, plate like antennae that may be located on the from of its head. This lobster is a carnivore that may be found in the Atlantic Ocean from Florida to the Yucatan. The blue spiny lobster has intriguing behaviors. These behaviors are actually auspicious defensive and protective mechanisms. By rubbing its antennae together the blue spiny lobster will produce a cicada sound. This tactic may be used for protection. The long antennae also are useful to whip and strike predators with. This audacious lobster may be found in the tropical reefs in the indo-pacific ocean. Crustaceans are apart of the phylum of arthropoda.

They are known for having a sturdy exterior exoskeleton that is composed of calcium carbonate. Crustaceans will molt the exoskeleton as they grow.

This subphylum is known for having a significant biomass and playing an essential role in the aquatic food chain. Types of Crustaceans Marine Symbiosis Advantageous Adaptations Cnidaria The coral and zooxanthelle exemplify mutualistic symbiosis. Mutualism will prove to be beneficial for both of the organisms. The coral provides shelter and protection for the zooxanthelle. In return, the zooaxthelle supply energy and nutrients for the coral.

The symbiotic relationship that the coral and the zooxanthelle have is also known as an obligate symbiotic relationship, which is when the survival of the symbionts requires them to be completely dependent on the other. The coral is relies on the nutrients and energy provided by the zooxanthelle. Without zooxanthelle, the coral will become bleached. Coral and zooxanthelle share a mutualistic endosymbiotic relationship.

Endosymbiosis is classified by physical interactions and is an organisms thriving inside of another organism. Carnivores This classification of organisms is typically known as meat eaters. This is mostly correct but for the sake of accuracy they are organisms which obtain most of their nutrients by eating a steady diet of animal tissue. Carnivores tend to obtain this tissue through either hunting or scavenging. <- The Giant South American Cockroach (blaberus giganteus). The smooth back and unique coloration help this cockroach to blend into its specific environment. Omnivores: This group of eaters is not picky. They eat a variety of food ranging between meat, plants, algae, and fungi. An example of an omnivore that we observed: The Red Footed Tortoise (Geochelone Carbonaria). This species is a popular pet and is protected by the Convention on International Trackers of Endangered Species (CITES). Tortoises differ from turtles in that turtles live in the water and tortoises live on land. This particular tortoise finds its environment in a wide variety of climates, from the grasslands to the rainforest. Winged Wonders Thousands of years ago, many land mammals migrated to the oceans. They slowly adapted and evolved to constantly living in water by growing flippers and blubber. When the marine mammals no longer required their hind legs their bodies adapted by shrinking the bones of their legs. These bones are known as vestigial bones. Marine mammals such as whales, dolphins, and seals all possess the vestigial bones but since they were no longer a necessity in the water their bodies adapted to help facilitate swimming and to make their bodies become a more fusiform shape. Moth vs. Butterfly Thousands of years ago, many land mammals migrated to the oceans. They slowly adapted and evolved to constantly living in water by growing flippers and blubber. When the marine mammals no longer required their hind legs their bodies adapted by shrinking the bones of their legs Another adaptation that many marine mammals possess is Life Cycle of a Butterfly There are four distinct stages in the life cycle of a butterfly. Butterflies don't hatch with wings, they actually come out as larvae or caterpillars before going through a series of changes called metamorphosis before becoming fully grown adult butterflies. First Stage: Eggs are layed on leaves so that after the caterpillar hatches it will have food to eat. Certain species of caterpillar will only eat the leaves of certain plants. Every species of butterfly has a a host plant that the butterflies lay their eggs on. Different species of butterflies also lay their eggs in different ways, some butterflies will lay a single egg on a plant, while others lay their eggs in clusters. Second Stage: When a caterpillar first hatches it is known as a first instar caterpillar and the only thing it does is eat! Many species of caterpillar eat the shell that they have just hatched from first since it contains many nutrients. Other species pass on the shell and head straight for the leaf. Caterpillars grow incredibly fast but, unfortunately their skin does not grow with them so as they grow they molt. Once a caterpillar has molted for the first time it is called a second instar caterpillar. The caterpillar continues to grow and eat, as a result it molts four more times. Third Stage: Once a caterpillar is done growing it forms its self into a pupa or chrysalis. From the outside it doesn't look like there is much going on. However on the inside the caterpillar is rapidly changing. Wings, antenna, and a different type of mouth are all growing, the original cells of the caterpillar are used as extra energy. Depending on the species of butterfly the pupa stage can last anywhere from two weeks up to two years. Fourth Stage: The adult stage of the butterfly is very different from the caterpillar stage. Adult butterflies have long antenna, long legs, compound eyes, and large beautiful wings. When a butterfly first emerges from the chrysalis its wings are small and wet. Before the butterfly can fly it must pump fluids from its abdomen through the veins in its wings so the wings can extend to their full length. After the wings reach their full length they must dry and the butterfly must exercise its flight muscles before it can fly. The African Moon Moth The African Moon Moth only lives three to four days after it emerges from the cocoon. The African Moon Moth has incredible camouflage that helps it blend in with the leaves of a trees. When the moth emerges from the cocoon it has all of the food it will eat already inside its stomach. The male moths are more brightly colored while the females are a lighter color. Owl Butterfly The Owl Butterfly is named for the large eye like spot on the lower part of its wing. Early instars of the Owl Butterfly are greenish caterpillars with dull stripes running along their bodies. Larger instars are brown with a spiny head and forked tail. Owl Butterflies are found in the rainforests of Central and South America. Owl Butterflies are most active at night so they remain safe from avian predators.
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