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# why do solids, liquids and gases behave differently ?

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## Brookie Rogers

on 24 June 2013

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#### Transcript of why do solids, liquids and gases behave differently ?

How are particles arranged in a solid,
liquid and gas?
What happens when matter changes from one state to another?
What makes up all matter?
Scientists define matter as anything that has mass and occupies space as in volume. All matter is made out of particles .
How do particles behave differently in different states?
Why do solids,
liquids
and gases
behave differently?

Particles in a solid
The particles in a solid
are packed tightly
together in a fixed
formation. They are held
together by strong forces of attraction, so the
only movement they are able to do is gently
vibrate.
Particles in a liquid
melting
freezing
evaporation
condensation
sublimation
resublimation
Diffusion
Convection
Conduction
Expansion
Contraction
Diffusion is the movement of particles between areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration, until the concentration is equal. For example if you were to use a can of deodorant and release all the gas particles into the room. The area in which you sprayed the gas will immediately have a high concentration of particles. On the other side of the room there will a low concentration of particles. Since gas particles are able to move, the particles will eventually expand through out the room evenly and the concentration will become equal.
When particles are heated the distance between the
particles increase, causing the object to expand. When gases or liquids expand because of heat they become less dense causing them to rise. After particles are heated they begin to cool and decrease back to room temperature, meaning the particles become more dense so they sink. When the particles make a continuous cycle of converting from warm to cold it creates a convection current. An example of this when a heater creates heat to warm the air. The air which is first heated rises and the cooler air which hasn't been heated yet then sinks, once it is heated it will rise and the other air will lower
again. The process continues until the whole room is heated.
Conduction is a term to explain the transfer and distribution of heat energy from particle to particle within a substance or object. Different objects are more suitable for conducting heat than others such as metal which is a thermal conductor. Other objects like plastic and wool normally cant, so they are called thermal insulators. For instance, when particles at one end of a metal rod are by a heat source they begin to vibrate because of the heat, this causes them to bump into adjacent particles. This means those particles will also begin to vibrate quickly. While the particles bump into each other the heat is being transferred down the rod, making the entire rod hot.
Expansion happens when particles are
heated, which makes them move around and
the space between them increases, this results in the substance expanding. For instance when a balloon is exposed to heat, the particles inside gain more energy. This means the particles move round faster meaning it requires more space. The particles then begin to put pressure on the internal sides of the balloon, which forces it to expand.
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The particles in a liquid
are close together but are
not in a fixed pattern. The particles have moderate forces of attraction between each other so they are able to move around in a general area.
The particles in gas
are spaced apart and move around very
quickly because the forces of attraction holding them together is
very weak.
Particles in
a gas
Liquids, gases and solids all expand when they are exposed to high temperatures, this means if particles are exposed to cool temperatures they will move closer together and slow down causing the substance or object to contract because the particles now need less space. Now if you were to put a balloon in an area lower than the room temperature, over time the drop in temperature will begin to slow all the particles inside the balloon down and force them to go closer together. Since the gas is no longer trying to escape, there is no pressure on the internal sides of the balloon. This makes the balloon contract.

Matter changes between the different states when the particles gain energy in the form of heat or when they lose energy. When heat is lost or applied to a substance, the forces of attraction changes between the particles. This changes the distance between the particles and the pace they move at. The particles behave very differently in each state.
Some simple elements of the periodic table
Hydrogen-H
Carbon-C
Oxygen- O
Helium-He
The Particles in each state are all arranged very differently. The different aspects of each state, all determine the way the substance behaves.
By Brooklyn Rogers
Different substances can all have different reactions to a similar room temperature. This means that the force of attraction between the particles whether weak or strong , determines the ability of the temperature to move the particles apart or closer. For instance if the room temperature was 78'c , alcohol would convert from a liquid to a gas because the heat is strong enough to break the forces of attraction holding the particles together. In the same room temperature water would still remain a liquid because it has stronger forces of attraction holding the particles together since it has the higher boiling point of 100'c.
Particles behave differently in each state because the amount of energy a substance gains changes the rate of movement of the particles. The pace of movement and the space needed for the particles increases as it changes between solid, liquid and gas.
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