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Digestive System

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Taylor Taylor

on 5 April 2011

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Transcript of Digestive System

Digestive System What is the digestive system? The system by which ingested food is acted upon physical and chemical means to provide the body with absorbable nutrients and to excrete waste products. The main parts of the digestive system The Mouth The food enters the body through the mouth, or oral cavity The Pharynx The pharynx is our throats. It serves two separate systems: Digestive, by allowing the passage of solid foods and liquids and the respiratory. The Esophagus The esophagus sometimes referred to as the gullet, is the muscular tube connecting the pharynx and stomach The Stomach The stomach is located on the left side of the abdominal cavity just under the diaphragm. When empty, the stomach shapes into the form of a J and its inner walls are drawn up into long, soft folds called ruage. When the stomach expands, the rugae flatten out and disappear. The stomach contains three layers of smooth muscle. These layers contract in a regular rhythm to mix and churn stomach contents. Gastric juices contains hydrochloric acid and pepsin. Pepsin is an enzyme that breaks down peoteins. Hydrochloric acid kills microorganisms and breaks down cell walls and connective tissue in food. Small Intestine The small intestine is the body's major digestive organ. It is divided into three regions or sections. The first section is called duodenum closest to the stomach chyme from the stomach and secretions from the pancreas and liver empty into this section. The middle section is called the jejunum. Digestion and the absorption of nutrients occurs mainly in the jejunum. The final section is called ileum. There is a sphincter that controls the flow of chyme to the larger intestine. Large Intestine The large intestine has three major regions: cecum, colon, and recum. Cecum is shaped like a rounded pouch and lies directly below the area where the ileum empties into the large intestine. Colonis divided into sections: ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid. After curving and recurving, the sigmoid colon empties into the rectum, a fairly straight tube ending at the anus Pancreas The pancreas produces pancreatic juice that helps breaks down all three complex food molecules. The enzymes contained in that juice include pancreatic amylase, pancreatic lipase, andtrypsinogen. Amylase= breaks down starches to simple sugars. Lipase= breaks down fats to simpler fatty acids. Trypsinogen=breaks down protein in to amino acids. Pancreas juices are collected from all parts of the pancreas through microscopic ducts, which form into larger ducts. Those eventually combine to form the main pancreatic duct. These ducts then transport pancreatic juice to the duodenum of the small intestine. Reference http://homepage.mac.com/seisenelem/bodysystems/Digestive/howitworks.html www.faqs.org dictionary.reference.com Liver The liver creates bile, a watery greenish, yellow liquid. Liver cells create 1 quart of bile everyday. Bile leaves the liver through the common hepatic duct. This duct unites with the cystic duct from the gall bladder to form the common bile duct, which delivers bile to the duodenum. Gall Bladder The gall bladder stores bile, which can hold up tp 1.2 to 1.7 ounces. The liver continuously produces bile. When digestion is not occuring, bile backs up the cystic duct and enters the gall bladder. While holding the bile, the gall bladder removes water from it, making it more concentrated. The Digestive system working with other systems Endocrine The pancreas works with both endocrine system and the digestive system Circulatory The digestive system makes nutrients to give the cells in the body and the body needs energy, so the circulatory system is like a delivery system. Skeletal The digestive system needs the food to be ground into pieces. So, we use our teeth. The rib cage also protects the dugestive system. Muscular Muscles move your jawbone to chew your food. Respitory When you gulp too much air and it goes down the esphogus and into stomach, your lungs makes you burp, so too much air won't hurt your stomach. How can you keep your disgestive system healthy? The body is wholly dependent on the digestive system to provide it with the nutrients- fluids, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals- it needs to continue to funtion. If the digestive system fails to do this because it is not funtioning properly, the entire body suffers. A healthy lifestyle keeps the digestive system healthy. This includes following a proper diet, exercising properly, maintaining a healthy weight, not smoking, no drinking alchol, and reducing stress. Eat foods that are low in fat, low in cholestrol, and high in fiber to keep your digestive system high in fiber. Also drink p;enty of water. Limit ingestion of cigarette fumes, excessive achol, and spicy foods. They can cause serious damage to the digestive system. How it works Food to Mouth Mouth to Esophagus Esophagus to Stomach Stomach to Small Intestine Small Intestine to Large Intestine Large Intestine to Recum Recum to Anus Anus to Toliet Diseases Biliary Artesia is a condition where ducts transport bile from the liver to the duodenum fail to develop in a fetus. This disease is more common in childern. In a child with this condition, bile begans to back up into the liver and evenutally into the rest of the body. The child becomes jaundiced or yellow. The abdomen then begins to swell and the child becomes more ill. If untreated, the liver fails and death will occur within two years. Diverticulous is when the inner layer of the large intestine bulges out through the outer musclar layer. These bulges are called diverticula. When they become infected or inflamed, the resulting condition is known as diverticulitis. Gallstones are solid crystal deposits that form in the gall bladder. They can vary in size from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball. 80% of all gallstones are composed of cholersterol, a fatlike substance produced by the liver. Gallstones form when the liver produces more cholesterol than intestinal juices can liquefy. How to Treat the Dieases Biliary Atresia:
Surgury is the only treatment that can cure this diease. Diverticulous:
Usually not eating or drinking anything can cure this. Medication to fight the infection is also given. Gallstones:
Gallstones of a small size may pass out of the body through the urine. So they may more easily pass out, doctors may use high-frequency sound waves to break up the gallstones. Fun Facts Small intestine is actually bigger than the large intestine. The small intestine is 3 grown men tall and two fingers wide. If you eat upside and won't throw up unless intesinal muscle goes wrong. Stomach lining is replaced every 3 days. Liver has 200 different functions in the human body.
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