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The Cold War Unfolds

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by

Tasia Cox

on 19 May 2016

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Transcript of The Cold War Unfolds

West Berlin and East Berlin were split with a western style democracy in the west and a communist dictatorship in the east.

The east was so repressed that many people fled to the west for a better standard of living.

In 1961, East Germany built a wall to stop East Berliners from fleeing into West Berlin.

The Berlin Wall
Eastern Bloc Countries Respond
Hungary’s leader, Imre Nagy, even ended one-party rule and attempted to pull his country out of the Warsaw Pact.
Eastern Bloc Countries Respond
Eastern Bloc Countries Respond
In 1956, Poland and Hungary both held protests because their governments were arresting non-communist leaders and for taking private property away.
The Cold War Unfolds
As a result, the Soviets launched a massive attack on Hungary and Nagy was later executed.
In early 1968, Czechoslovak leader Alexander Dubcek introduced greater freedom of expression and limited democracy. This became known as the “Prague Spring.”
Eastern Bloc Countries Respond
Soviet leaders feared that democracy would threaten communist power and Soviet domination. As a result, Warsaw Pact troops launched a massive invasion of Czechoslovakia and put an end to these freedoms.
The Nuclear Arms Race
The arms race began right after World War II. The U.S. was the first country to develop the nuclear weapon, followed by the Soviet Union by the end of the 1940s.
The Nuclear Arms Race
The threat of nuclear war is real.
The U.S. and the Soviet Union had nuclear weapons capable for destroying the world many times over.
Hiroshima, 1945
The Nuclear Arms Race
However, with both countries concerned that the other could gain a technological advantage, the arms race began.
The Nuclear Arms Race
With the possible threat of world destruction, both the U.S. and the Soviet Union decided to have talks to discuss limiting their weapons.
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) – the U.S. and the Soviet Union negotiated to reduce the number of nuclear weapons held by each side.
Both side came to agreements in 1972 and 1979.

The U.S. and the Soviet Union were known as the world’s “Superpowers” during this time.
The Nuclear Arms Race
American and Soviet arms control agreements led to an era of détente.
Détente – a relaxation of tensions between the U.S. and the Soviets in the 1970s.
The U.S. wanted to restrain the Soviet Union through diplomatic agreements.
Détente ended with the Soviet Union’s invasion of Afghanistan in 1979.
The Cold War Goes Global
The Soviets saw a chance to spread communism all over the map.
They assisted with communist forces in China, Korea, and Vietnam.
Concerned, the U.S. began forming treaties and alliances with many countries in the world.
The Cold War Goes Global
Countries with western influences, such as Angola and Vietnam found support for their communist revolutions in the Soviet Union.
The Soviets supplied these nations with weapons to fight for their wars of independence.
The Cold War Goes Global
The U.S. countered by setting up military bases throughout the world, and many of them were in countries that were close to the Soviet Union and its allies.
The Cold War Goes Global
For example, after the Korean War, the U.S. set up a base in South Korea next to Soviet backed North Korea.
The Cold War Gets Hot
The Cold War sparked up when Fidel Castro led a guerilla army to victory in Cuba.
Castro established a communist regime that looked to establish strong relations with the Soviet Union.
The Cold War Gets Hot
Castro severely limited political freedoms and denied many people civil rights.
Landowners and businesses lost their property and many fled to the U.S.
The Cold War Gets Hot
President John F. Kennedy attempted to bring down the communist regime with U.S. trained Cuban exiles.
Bays of Pigs Invasion – in 1961, these Cuban exiles failed when they were captured by Castro’s forces.
Cuban Missile Crisis
In 1962, the Soviet Union sent nuclear missiles to Cuba.
Cuban Missile Crisis
President Kennedy responded by imposing a naval blockade that prevented further Soviet shipments.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Kennedy demanded that the Soviet Union remove their missiles from Cuba, and for a few tense days, the world faced a risk of nuclear war.
Ultimately, the ships turned back and the Soviet nuclear weapons were moved from Cuba back to the Soviet Union.
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