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Project Management

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Ehsan Sabet

on 5 October 2016

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Transcript of Project Management

Project Management
What is "Project Management"?
Project Management as a JOB
Macro-Stages in project management
Project Risks
Risk Analysis

Project Failure
Project Closure
Learning Curve

Senior Lecturer
Operations Management
and Strategic Decision Making

Phone: +44 (0) 115 8484804
Level 8, Newton Building
Nottingham Business School
Nottingham Trent University

Dr Ehsan Sabet
Attributes of a project include:
it has a
it has a
start and finish
it requires
, including:
Tools & Equipment
Administration and support
it requires
it is a
temporary structure
it is designed to
achieve change(s)
What is a Project?
What is a 'Project'?
By Ehsan Sabet
*PMI, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) (2004), p. 8.
Project Management is “the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.”*
What is Project Management?
By Ehsan Sabet
A box ticking exercise

Just a time plan

Only about managing a big projects

A recipe for 100% success
it evolves and needs to adapt style and method according to the groups you are working with/for
What Project Management is NOT
By Ehsan Sabet
Project Management as a Career
*The PMI Project Management Fact Book, Second Edition, PMI, 2011
The Project Management Institute (PMI) estimates that 4.5 million people in the U.S. (3.3% of the workforce) and over 12 million people in the rest of the world regard project management as their profession of choice

The U.S. spends over $2.3 trillion on projects every year, or one quarter of the nation’s gross domestic product
By Ehsan Sabet
General Figures
Click Here to see the report
Project Management as a Career
By Ehsan Sabet
Project Management as a Career
By Ehsan Sabet
Imagine you are persuading a group of investors (Dragon’s den) to invest on your business.
By Ehsan Sabet
*Northwest Center for Emerging Technologies, “Building a Foundation for Tomorrow: Skills Standards for Information Technology,” Belleview, WA, 1999.
Fifteen Project Management Job Functions*
Evaluate project requirements.
Define scope of project.
Step 1: Understanding the project environment
Step 2: Project definition
Step 3: Project planning
Step 4: Execution / Implementation
Step 5: Project control
Macro-Stages in project management
Corrective action
Step 1: Understanding the project environment
Step 2: Project definition
Step 3: Project planning
Step 4: Execution / Implementation
Step 5: Project control
Project Overview
Project Proposal
Work Breakdown
Critical Path
Budget planning
Gantt Chart
Continuous improvement
Step 6: Project Close-Down
Final Report
Future works
Lessons to learn
Step 2: Project Definition
Step 1: Understanding the project Environment
By Ehsan Sabet
Named after Henry Gantt (1961-1919)
Visual presentation of phase, milestones and details
Shows tasks’ dependency
Shows parallel activities, overlaps, constraints, issues etc.
Many other resources: Budget planning, HR planning, etc.
Detail Planning, Using Gantt Chart:
By Ehsan Sabet
By Ehsan Sabet
Master Plan

is a general plan that identifies all the work packages for the whole project showing the main activities, their duration and sequence.

Phase Planning

is about dividing the master plan into various phases to develop more detailed work plans and provide goals that can be considered targets to the project team. Phase planning similarly involves representatives of all organizations.

Look Ahead Planning

is about making tasks ready so that they can be done when the right time comes. The look-ahead period, which typically varies from 4-8 weeks and ‘Making ready’ to ensure that tasks are ready for production when required.

Weekly Work Plan (WWP)

is the collaborative agreement over the production tasks to be completed in the next week given the resources available. The purpose of the weekly meeting is to communicate progress, plan the following week and commit to the plan.

Percentage Plan Completed (PPC)
and analysis of the reasons for not completed tasks is about improving the project planning by continual assessment and learning from failure.
Last Planner – key features
Step 5: Project Control
By Ehsan Sabet
Thanks for your attention !
Output of each stage
From 02:00 to 04:30
Group Discussion
From 04:30 to End
From 03:30 to 08:40
By Ehsan Sabet
Realistic Approach
Risk Analysis
Contingency Plan (Plan B)
By Ehsan Sabet
Pessimistic time
Expected time
Most likely time
Optimistic time
Activity duration
When do you promise to finish the job?
By Ehsan Sabet
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3
Phase 4
Phase 5
Phase 6
In a Project !?
What do you promise now?
Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
Risk Analysis
What are the potential risks in the project (from project management point of view)?
Finally, what the Plan B is in case of risk realisation ?
How probable are those risks?
How severely these risks impact the whole project, in case of happening?
How can we dynamically measure and assess the risks?
What can be done to reduce the probability or impact level of the risks? (Action plan)
If these threats happen, is the project still valid?
Risk Analysis Example
ARRAS PEOPLE: PPM Resources & Links:

Project Management Institution (PMI):

Project Management Institution UK (PMI-UK):

Realising the potential of researchers:
Why projects fail?
The goal of the project is not defined properly
Lack of change management (changes to project are not controlled)
Poor or non-existent planning
The project is not resourced as planned
Lack of coordination of activities
The project reporting is inadequate or does not exist (visibility issue)
Quality criteria is not defined or measured (control issue)
Lack of ownership - It is not clear who is responsible for the project outcome
The progress is not monitored and controlled properly.
Identify required resources and budget.
Identify stakeholders, decision-makers, and escalation procedures.
Develop detailed task list (work breakdown structures).
Estimate time requirements.
Develop initial project management flow chart.
Report project status.
Identify and evaluate risks.
Prepare contingency plan.
Identify interdependencies.
Identify and track critical milestones.
Participate in project phase review.
Secure needed resources.
Manage the change control process
Everyone in the project should have the same expectations from the project
Do you have multiple sponsors with different objectives?
Every sponsors should be at the same page from the beginning to set the criteria for measuring the success of the project
Does your objective vague or incomplete?
Does your project have no clear endpoint?
Defining the project's pathway (plan) are as important as the project's objective.
By Ehsan Sabet
Software for Project Management
What I recommend is 'Openproj' which is free (opensource) PM software which installs on both Windows-based and Mac systems
Tools for Project Planning
Mind Map
Drill Down
Useful at the earliest stage of a project
Set out all possibilities and issues
Helps gives structure to project
Makes linkages more evident
A technique to identify all tasks associated with a project
Start with the project objective
Identify obvious tasks
Break these down into smallest parts
List questions or points to clarify
Data Management Methods
Use single words or simple phrases
Use colour for different ideas
Use symbols and images
Using cross-linkages
OK, I couldn't fund my Project!
Rob a bank and get away
Research what is in vault
Get into vault
Get away
Get a job in the bank
Involve a bank insider
Use press and financial knowledge
Buy house nearby
How will money be laundered?
Where do we lie low?
Set up business to hide soil removal
Get plans of building
Buy construction equipment
Dig a tunnel

Step 3: Project Planning
By Ehsan Sabet
Phase planning (in project definition phase – proposal)
Milestones (in project definition phase – proposal)
Develop detailed task list or work breakdown structures
Estimate time requirements
Develop initial project management flow chart (Gantt Chart)
Resources allocation and planning
Project management and control -> Revisions
Prepare contingency plan
Software for Project management
What I recommend is a software called 'Openproj'. A free source software which runs on both Windows, Mac-systems as well as on your iPads!
Very similar to Microsoft Project!
Step 3: Project Planning
It is an overhead
It takes commitment
It is difficult to plan for future
Stops you getting on with the work
Always wrong
Hard to maintain
Reluctance to Plan
If you fail to plan, you plan to fail
Step 3: Project Planning
Tasks to do before planning:
What money, equipment, space, staff etc are available
What the organisation hopes to achieve from the project
What the project is to achieve
What is to be included and what left out
What are the limits on what is allowed
Who is allowed to make decisions
Can it be a project
Reference System (Real World)
Model Framework
Validation and verification
Computer coding
Feedback (Revision and Debugging)
Feedback (Model revision)
Example from my PhD
Before the planning, you must know what are your project's constraints?
Step 3: Project Planning
So, What are they in your case?
Clarity of scope
Access to literature / resources
Access to primary data
Ethical Issues
Access to supervisor
‘Publishable quality’
Now, Do you think Research Projects are far different?
Imagine you are writing a grant proposal for ESRC, a research proposal for a bursary, etc.
MAYLOR, H., 2003. Project Management, 3rd Ed. Prentice Hall,
MAYLOR, H., 2003. Project Management, 3rd Ed. Prentice Hall,
MAYLOR, H., 2003. Project Management, 3rd Ed. Prentice Hall,
Chambers, S., & Johnston, R. (2009). Operations and process management: principles and practice for strategic impact. Pearson Education.
Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
Slack, N., Chambers, S., & Johnston, R. (2010). Operations management. Pearson Education.

Goldratt, E. M. (1997). Critical chain: A business novel. Great Barrington, MA: North River Press.

Maylor, M. (2010), Project Management, 4th Ed., Financial Times/ Prentice Hall

Newbold, R. C. (1998). Project management in the fast lane: Applying the Theory of Constraints. CRC Press.

Volume of product/service
Variety of product/service
7S framework of management issues by McKinsey and Co.
The high level requirements of the project and the means to achieve them
The organisational arrangement that will e used to carry out the project
The methods for work to be designed, monitored and controlled.
The selection, recruitment, management and leadership of those working on the project
The managerial and technical tools available to the project manager and the staffs
The underlying way of working and inter-relating within the team/organisation
individuals and groups who have an interest in the project or its outcome
see the survey here:
other resources
few milestones
Project risks
Contingency Plans
Work Description
Work Assignments
Field works
Scope Creep
Understanding the risk!
Reference: http://prezi.com/f2txskzwfyr6/project-management/
Reference: http://prezi.com/f2txskzwfyr6/project-management/
Reference: http://prezi.com/f2txskzwfyr6/project-management/
Reference: http://prezi.com/f2txskzwfyr6/project-management/
No change
If risk analysis has carefully done
If you truly know the change in environment /scope is within your resource capabilities and time scope
If the procedures are accurate to mitigate the risks
Scope of the project
Acceptance critera
Resource allocation
Project Constraints
Full transcript