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Building New Times.....In 1875-1915
Transcript of Building New Times.....In 1875-1915
Violence has been reported at several mining towns throughout the country as workers trying to form unions are running into strong resistance from business leaders and employers who are unwilling to be forced to pay higher wages or improve working conditions.
Much of the controversy appears to specifically be centered on Company Towns. What is a company town? An example would be a small make-shift town set up by some coal mines in the mountains where the nearest town is miles away. The workers are forced to buy their goods from the Company towns and in many cases pay rent for being able to stay on the company’s property. This is a great situation for the company because they are able to retrieve all of the wages they pay to workers through rent and the company stores.
Because of this situation workers are forced to work extremely long days just to try and stay ahead of what they owe the company stores. Pay is averaging $8-$12 per week, while living expenses are averaging about $18 per week. Another major issue is safety, with countless numbers of people injured and killed over the past few years while on the job. Companies do not want to shell out any money to improve working conditions or make job sites safer because that cuts into profits.
These situations and conditions have led workers to organize into labor unions to try and force companies to change. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) is trying to build a nationwide system of labor union. Companies so far have responded with violence by hiring thugs to intimidate any workers considering joining a union. Methods used to intimidate include: kidnappings, beatings, threats, and even murder. This conflict between labor and management will eventually have to be dealt with and the national level.
Vol XCIII, No. 311
The change in the way goods are created in changing drastically and moving forward at full steam. This change involves goods being made by machines instead of man and manual labor. We have officially entered our Industrial phase.
Because of the system of factories now in place goods are being made faster and cheaper. What once took one person a day to create can be made one-hundred fold in the same amount of time.
Major industries are springing up all over the country. The coal and iron ore industry have really received a shot in the arm due to the creation of the Bessemer process. This process uses blasts of air to help turn iron into a new, much stronger and much more durable product called steel. Mining has increased and so have new factories for the making of steel. America is booming!!
Building New Times..... In 1875-1915
Industry Booming in America/Bessemer Process Praised
The industrial era and the factory system have created a new beast in the business world in America today. This new type of businessman is being referred to as a Tycoon. A tycoon is a person that builds up a huge industry and becomes filthy rich.
Tycoons of today are men such as, John D Rockefeller of Standard Oil, J.P. Morgan for steel and railroads, and Carnegie for U.S. steel. These men all have more money that most people can even fathom.
Using new business strategies these men have vaulted to the top of the world in the wealth department. Their technique is fairly simple; monopolize the industry they are involved with. These tycoons have used both muscle and money to either buy up their competition or force them out of business so they can control the Industry.
Monopolies are beginning to come under fire from the public these days because they destroy America’s belief in competition and free enterprise. Monopolies also create a small upper class of extremely wealthy people. The government is considering steps that might need to be taken to limit or eliminate monopolies in the future for the good of the people and this nation.
New Phenomenon: New Type of Businessman
Violence Breaking Out in Company Towns
President Theodore Roosevelt is quickly gaining the reputation as being the nation’s trustbuster. Roosevelt is highly noted for being an advocate of fair competition, he is taking scores of, so called, trusts to court in an effort to break them up. These massive monopolies are dominating every aspect of business in this country.
Roosevelt is using a law passed by Congress to try and break up these trusts (A trust is a small group of companies that work to control an industry and set the prices on consumer goods). They can then eliminate their competition.
Roosevelt’s main target is Standard Oil owned by John D. Rockefeller. Teddy is using the Sherman Anti-Trust Act to try and bust up Standard Oil’s monopoly on the oil industry. Standard owns thousands of wells, the transportation to the refineries, the refineries, the transportation for the product to the consumer, and the businesses where the product is sold. They control every aspect of the industry and can set prices at what-ever they want now that they have eliminated the competition.
Rockefeller and several other tycoons have been gaining popularity as of late for becoming “Philanthropists.” This is a person that gives part of their fortune back to society. The most well-known philanthropists across this land is Andrew Carnegie who is giving millions back to the people in the form of museums and libraries.
Canal Opens to the Wonderment of All
Immigration into this country has reached an all-time high, as over 8 million immigrants have entered this country over the past 8 years. Most of these immigrants are coming from Eastern and Southern Europe from countries such as; Serbia, Italy, Russia, Poland, and Greece.
The main reason for the immigration is to escape prejudices they face in Europe, but that is not the only reason. Many have made the journey in an attempt to take advantage of the current industrial boom and become a financial success. Jobs are available in abundance.
Immigrants must first stop at Ellis Island in New York where their processed and given the initial paper work that it takes to become an American citizen.
This massive influx of foreigners has made the United States into a “Melting Pot” of cultures, religions, political views, and of course ethnic groups. Most of the groups end up living together in small enclaves to help with language problems. Many these groups are ending up in the inner part of the cities along with many of the African Americans that are fleeing the segregation of the south.
A miracle of mankind opened today a couple thousand miles to our south. The Panama Canal has opened to all sea traffic.
The canal, which links the Atlantic to the Pacific, will save thousands of treacherous miles around South American for merchant ships, cargo ships, and the U.S. Navy.
The canal does not come cheap; nearly one-hundred million dollars was spent to complete this massive project. The canal was also expensive in human life. Over 6,000 people died from disease and accidents while building the canal.
The Canal was an idea of Theodore Roosevelt’s and he even spent several hours there working alongside common laborers. Mankind has accomplished something today that would have seemed impossible for previous generations.
Immigrants a Flock to America
People in the News...
Works Cited for People in the News:
Founder of the AFL (American Federal Of Labor) This was a union in which anyone that fell into the category of skilled labor could join…it was to improve pay, conditions, and hours.
Under his leadership, the AFL became the largest and most influential labor federation in the world.
Longest serving president of AFL.
People in the News
Built a huge conglomeration of department stores that sold about everything.
Upon his father's death, young Sears began working in the Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway at age 17 to support mother and sisters
The catalog featured a virtual department store of goods appealing to rural Midwestern America. Roebuck sold his stake in 1895, and Sears stayed on as president until 1909 when he quit in a dispute over the advertising budget.
Created a catalog to send to consumers.
Ward's success inspired a host of imitators. The most successful was Sears, Roebuck & Company, which was founded in 1891 and eventually relegated Montgomery Ward to second place in the mail-order business.
At the time of Ward's death, the company was grossing $40 million annually and employed 6,000 workers.
Created the huge trust of Standard Oil and became a philanthropist.
He is considered the richest person in history, with an estimated net worth when he was alive of $660 billion in 2007 USD equivalent.
The Rockefeller Foundation has distributed more than $14 billion in current dollars.
Had the huge company of U.S. steel before selling to Morgan.
Wrote The Gospel of Wealth in 1901, which explained that one's excess money should be used to support the needs of the public-good guy.
Started out as a poor, Scottish immigrant.
Bought out Carnegie Steel to create the largest business in the world and had a lot of dealings in the rail road industry.
Faced criticism that he had too much power and was accused of manipulating the nation’s financial system for his own gain.
The Gilded Age titan spent a significant portion of his wealth amassing a vast art collection.
Known as the trust buster when he became President in 1901/He was a member of the rough riders that fought in Cuba in the Spanish/American War of 1898.
In 1906, Roosevelt was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his role of negotiator in the Russo-Japanese War. He was the first American to win the Nobel Prize.
Theodore Roosevelt was the youngest president, assuming the office at the age of 42 after President McKinley was assassinated. John F. Kennedy was the youngest president to be elected to office. He was 43 when he became president.
The Bessemer Process allowed steel to be made stronger at a much lower cost (85% decrease in costs).
Child labor at glass and bottle factories in the United States was where a majority of children worked. This photograph was taken in the state of Indiana.
Rough-and-tumble loggers and gritty miners, of dreary shacks in isolated villages, of wages paid in scrip good only at price-gouging company stores, of paternalistic employers. But these stereotypes are outdated, especially for those company towns that flourished well into the twentieth century.
"If you could kick the person in the pants responsible for most of your trouble, you wouldn't sit for a month."-
Immigrants that have flocked to America wait in line to board a train.
A train brings supplies to the workers for the construction of the Panama Canal.
The Statue of Liberty
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Roosevelt Becomes the Trustbuster
1. Bessemer Process
2. Man to Machines
3. Trusts and Monopolies
A. Melting pot
B. Black Migration
C. Inner city Chettoes
5. Child Labor
6. Company Towns
B. Samuel Gompers
8. Sherman Anti-Trust Act
A. Teddy Roosevelt
10. War of 1898
A. Spanish Empire finished
B. Island Possessions
11. Panama Canal
Industrial Era Essay Outline
Summary of Spanish American War
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Standard Oil Company created 1870
Little Big Horn Massacre June 25 1876
This is commonly known as Custer's Last Stand. During this battle three different Indian tribes listed as the following: Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho were involved. These three tribes joined together to fight the U.S. 7th Calvary; the Native American's won with 268 U.S. soldiers killed and 55 injured.
Spanish American War starts: April 24th 1898
Spanish American War ends: August 12 1898
Representatives of Spain and the United States signed a peace treaty in Paris on December 10, 1898, which established the independence of Cuba, and gave Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States. It also allowed the United States to purchase the Philippines Islands from Spain for $20 million.
American Federation of Labor Created December 8th 1886
First federation of of labor unions in the United States. The head of the labor union was Samuel Gompers. He was born into a family of Jewish cigar makers. The goal of the AFL was to create higher wages and better working conditions. In the last two decades of the 20th century there was over 20,000 strikes in the United States. In most cases workers lost, but in others either partial or all of their demands were met, mostly due to the AFL.
Bessemer Process Created: 1856
The Bessemer Process was the first inexpensive industrial process that mass produced steel from molten pig iron prior to the open hearth furnace. It was independently discovered by William Kelly in 1856.
Standard Oil Trust busted: 1911
Standard Oil was one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations in 1911, but it ended when the United States Supreme Court ruled that Standard Oil was an illegal monopoly.
Telephone Invented March 7th 1876
Alexander Graham Bell holds the patent for inventing the first telephone. Bell and his assistant, Thomas A. Watson, tinkered with the object for months until a comprehensible sentence was heard on each side of the telephone.
James D. Rockefeller along with William Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust.
Oklahoma Land Claim: April 24 1889
A cannon's boom signaled the largest land rush America ever saw. At precisely twelve noon on September 16, 1893 the first land rush began into the unassigned lands of which included: Canadia, Cleveland, Kingfisher, Logan, Oklahoma, and Payne
Cuba was fighting to gain independence from Spain from 1868-1878. The U.S. began to have an interest in Cuba because we wanted the land to produce sugar. President Cleveland told Spain that if they did not resolve the issues in Cuba, the United States might intervene. The war was set in motion by an explosion on the ship the U.S.S Maine on February 15th. It was determined that a mine blew up the Maine and a blockade was ordered on Cuba April 21st and the United States declared war four days later.
Teddy Roosevelt Becomes President: September 6th 1901
Teddy Roosevelt became the President after the assassination of President William McKinley. He was President from 1901-1909. Roosevelt was not yet 43 when he became President, becoming the youngest President in Nation's history.
President McKinley is Assassinated Sep. 14th 1901
On September 6th 1901 President McKinley was shaking hands in Buffalo, New York, and was shot twice in the chest by a anarchist named Leo Czolgosz. He claimed to kill the President because he was the leader of what he claimed to be a corrupt government. The president died on September 14th. Czolgosz was convicted and executed on October 29, 1901.
Statue of Liberty arrives in America October 28th 1886
The statue of liberty was given to the United States of America from France as a gift of friendship. It was built in a joint effort between America and France. America built the pedestal and France built the statue
World War 1 begins: 1914
The beginning of the war was started on June 28 1914 with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip. Things worsened when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia.
Panama Canal Construction begins: 1878
The purpose of excavating the Panama Canal was to achieve quick and cheap shipping. The French had previously attempted to build the canal but failed due to bankruptcy. The United States then took over the project. President Roosevelt is considered the most involved President in the construction of the Canal
Panama Canal Construction ends: October 10th 1913
The first official Panama Canal passage of a ship was on January 7, 1914 when The Alexandre La Valley passed through. The Panama Canal cost America around $375,000,000, including the $10,000,000 paid to Panama and the $40,000,000 paid to the French company.
Edison invents the light bulb: October 21st 1879
Edison invented the light bulb after trying more than 1,600 materials for the filament. Some of these include: coconut fiber, fishing line, and even hairs from a friend's beard. He finally concluded that carbonized bamboo was the material that worked in the light bulb. The first large-scale test of the system took place when Edison sent electricity to lights in 25 builidings on September 4, 1882.
This would be the first war fought overseas by the United States and it involved campaigns in both Cuba and the Philippine Islands.
The majority of Spanish-American War soldiers were volunteers who originated from all over the United States for their part in, as Secretary of State John Hay called it, a "splendid little war."
War began in Cuba in June when the Marines captured Guantanamo Bay and U.S. troops landed at Siboney and Daiquiri, east of Santiago, Cuba. U.S. troops attacked the San Juan heights on July 1, 1898.
Dismounted cavalry troopers, including the African-American Ninth and Tenth cavalries and the Rough Riders commanded by Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt went up against Kettle Hill while the forces led by Brigadier General Jacob Kent charged up San Juan Hill and pushed Spanish troops further inland while inflicting 1,700 casualties.
The Spanish fleet guarding the Philippines was defeated by the U.S. Navy under the command of Commodore George Dewey on May 1, 1898. President McKinley authorized the assembling of troops in order to mount a campaign against the capital of Manila not realizing Dewey's win.
The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898. The war established the independence of Cuba, ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States, and allowed the US to purchase the Philippines Islands from Spain for $20 million.
The war cost the United States $250 million and 3,000 lives, 90% of whom perished from yellow fever, typhoid fever and other infectious diseases. Pennsylvania was one of the largest contributors of men during the Spanish American War with almost