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Cold War A-Z

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Emily Day

on 18 March 2014

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Transcript of Cold War A-Z

O
peration Hurricane
Atomic weapons project began in 1947
October 3, 1952
United Kingdom became the third country to test nuclear weapons
Montebellow Islands in Western Australia
Between 1952 and 1957, the UK conducted twelve atmospheric tests on Australian territories
Cold War A-Z
T
ruman Doctrine
Established that the United States would provide political, military, and economic assistance to all democratic nations under the threat of authoritarian forces
March 12, 1947, Truman delivered a speech before a joint session of Congress, asking for support for the Greeks in their fight against Communism
Assistance was also provided for Turkey, who had previously been receiving British aid
Mao
Z
edong

Leader of the Chinese Communist Party
Led Communist forces in revolution
Creation of the People's Republic of China led many Americans to believe the US State Department had gone soft on Communism, eventually leading to McCarthyism
During the Korean war, the US provided aid for Zedong's oppressors in the Republic of China
A
rms Race
July 16, 1945 the United States tested the atomic bomb
August 29, 1949 the Soviet Union detonated it's first atomic bomb
The arms race became the focus of the Cold War in the 1950's
1952 the Untied States tested the first Hydrogen bomb or "Super Bomb"
January 1954 US Secretary of State John Dulles announced "massive retaliation" policy-any Soviet attack would be met with a nuclear response
B
lacklist
HUAC -- House Un-American Activities Committee
Hollywood Ten -- 10 members of the Hollywood film industry called before HUAC in October 1947 who did not cooperate, ruining their careers as a result
Hollywood blacklist ended in the 1960's
C
uban Missile Crisis
closest the world came to a nuclear war
war was averted due to the actions of John F. Kennedy and Premier N. Khrushchev
April 1962 the Soviet Union entertained the idea of placing intermediate range missiles in Cuba
October 15, 1962 US recieved information about USSR attack
D
wight D. Eisenhower
Retired army general who led the Allies on D-Day, later to become the 34th President of the United States
Eisenhower Doctrine: Policy of the US stating that they would defend the Middle East against Communist attack
E
thel and Julius Rosenberg
Ethel was arrested in August 1950, a month after her husband
Charged with espionage and accused of heading a spy ring that gave up information to the Soviet Union that was pertinent to the atomic bomb
They were convicted in March 1951 and sentenced to death on April 5 of the same year
Julius was executed via electrocution at 8 p.m. on June 19, 1953, followed by his wife, who was proclaimed dead at 8:16
F
rancis Gary Powers
Alger
H
iss
Pilot of a U-2 spy plane
Plane was brought down near Svedlovsk, Soviet Union on May 1, 1960
Powers's capture had a long-lasting negative impact upon US-USSR relations
Mikhail
G
orbachev
Elected General Secretary of the Soviet Union in 1985, near the close of the Cold War
Took part in a race with the US to amass nuclear weapons in space
Met with Ronald Reagan at 5 summits in order to improve national relations
United States department official accused of spying for the Soviet Union
Hiss denied all charges against him but was convicted and sentenced to two years in prison
I
ron curtain
term used by Winston Churchill to describe the line of demarcation between Western Europe and the Soviet zone of influence
Churchill's speech "The Sinews of Peace", in which the name Iron Curtain was born, changed the way the democratic west viewed the communist east
J
oseph McCarthy
US republican senator
led investigations against alleged Communist infiltration into the US government
Spent nearly five years trying to expose communists and other loyalty risks pertinent to the US government
Censured in 1954 after his attack on the US Army
K
orean War
June 25, 1950
Invasion across the 38th parallel that started this war was also the first military action taken in the Cold War
American troops entered the war on South Korea's behalf in July
America's way of fighting the forces of international communism
38th parallel
L
ong Telegram
George Kennan's response from the Moscow Embassy to the State Department containing an analysis of the Soviet position
Merited the name "Long Telegram" for it's 8,000 word length
Later rewritten as a paper entitled
M
arshall Plan
N
ational Security Act of 1947
38th
P
arallel
Q
uemoy and Matsu
R
onald
R
eagan
S
pace Race
U
-2 Incident
V
iet Minh
W
arsaw Pact
X
Article
Y
alta Conference
George C. Marshall
June 5, 1947
American assistance in restoring the economic infrastructure of Europe
Mandated a major reorganization of the foreign policy of the US
Created the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
Caused changes in military establishment
Department of Defense was created by merging The War Department and Navy Department
Created Department of the Air Force
In 1949 the act was amended to give the Secretary of Defense more power over the individual services
The line of latitude in East Asia that roughly marked the border between North Korea and South Korea
Set as a military boundary in 1945, three years before the countries were officially established
Islands in the Taiwan Strait
January 5, 1950, Truman announced the US would not get involved in the Taiwan Strait dispute
After the Korean war broke out, the US responded by neutralizing the islands
On June 27, The Seventh Fleet was sent into the Straits in order to prevent any attack, putting Taiwan under US military protection
40th President of the US
Claimed containment policies would not bring a satisfactory end to the Cold War
Rapidly increased the quality and quantity of America's military technology and weapons in an arms race against USSR
Met with Gorbachev at a series of summit meeting in an attempt to negotiate arms control
Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union in October 1957, first satellite placed in orbit
NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) was created in 1958
Emphasized a need for math and science courses in education
July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walked on the moon
May 1, 1960
U2 spy plane was shot down by a Soviet surface whilst on a mission to photograph denied territory in the USSR
Francis Gary Powers, pilot, was captured, convicted on espionage charges, and sentenced to 10 years in prison
Released in first ever "spy-swap" after serving less than 2 years
Organization led primarily by communists that led the struggle for Vietnamese independence from French rule
Formed in China in May 1941 by Ho Chi Minh
Late 1943 members began infiltrating Vietnam to launch guerrilla operations against Japan
Seized control of Hanoi and proclaimed the independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam
An organization formed in Warsaw, Poland in 1955
Consisted of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the USSR
Formed for collective defense under joint military command
Dissolved in July 1991
The Sources of Soviet Conduct
State Department official George Kennan
Pseudonym "Mr. X" was used in an attempt to avoid in charges suggesting Kennan was presenting official US government policy
February 4-11, 1945
FDR, Churchill, Stalin
Determined the postwar methods of governing Germany, including the use of the Berlin Wall
The initial reaction suggested that the US and USSR wartime cooperation would carry over into the post-war era
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