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on 19 May 2018

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Phase 3
Communication as a Process
Phase 4
• Introduction to barriers in communication.
Phase 2
Relevance of the course: importance of good communication skills
Phase 1
• Relevance of the course: importance of good communication skills
• Communication as a Process; Communication models
• The need for Communication and the role of interpersonal communication in meeting the needs.
• Introduction to barriers in communication.
• Definition of terms
Define the term communication
What defines good communication skills in the 21st century?

The role of interpersonal communication.

• Introduction to barriers in communication.
• Communication models (Fiske, Shannon and Weaver and Lasswell’s)
Point and say
Give a an imaginary gift
Understand your audience
What were your expectations

Spell what you will do for fun today

Learn to listen
Loosen up there is no wrong answer
Finished files are the result of years
of scientific study combined with the experience of many years
How many fs?
Little things make a difference
Sender- the person starting the communication.

Message- what the sender wishes to communicate.

Medium- the method of communication whether verbal, written, signed, electronic or telephone.

Receiver- the person who receives the message and interprets it.

Understanding- the message has to be correctly interpreted by the receiver.

Feedback- the receiver needs to show the sender that he or she has received and understood the message.

Rasheed, E (2013)
Explain very briefly the following non-linguistic modes of communication:

Auditory vocal mode
Visual mode
Tactile mode
Olfactory and Gustatory mode

Pick an ID .

Find the other person, interview and introduce him/her to the class
3 minutes
Using the models described in this topic, analyse the communication that takes place in your family. Which model best reflects the communication between family members?
The aim of this course is to increase your communication competence i.e the ability to do and the knowledge of just how we do it
What needs are satisfied in your life by communicating with others?
Physical needs
Identity needs
Social needs
Practical needs

Physical needs
Communicating with others benefits our physical health/well-being

Identity needs
We define who we are through communication with others

Impressions of who we are, are formed according to the ways in which others respond to us

Social needs
Several social needs are met through communication:

Pleasure Escape
Affection Relaxation
Inclusion Control

Practical Needs
Communication is used in order to achieve our everyday needs

-to get where we need to go
-to accomplish what we need to accomplish
-to better understand our environment and what is expected of us

Why should we want to become more competent communicators?
More satisfying relationships
In order to satisfy our human needs
To get more out of life

What are the characteristics of a competent communicator?
A wide range of communication behaviors to choose from in an interaction
Ability to choose the most appropriate behavior for the situation
Cognitive Complexity
Commitment to the relationship

Communication is the process of transferring information
and meaning between senders and receivers.
using one or more written, oral, visual, or
electronic media. Th e essence of communication is sharing—providing data, information,
insights, and inspiration in an exchange that benefi ts both you and the people with whom
you are communicating.
Today’s employers expect you to be competent
at a wide range of communication
tasks. Fortunately, the skills that employers
expect from you are the same skills that will
help you advance in your career:
●Organizing ideas and information logically and completely
● Expressing ideas and information coherently and persuasively
● Actively listening to others
● Communicating effectively with people from diverse backgrounds and experiences
● Using communication technologies effectively and efficiently
● Following accepted standards of grammar, spelling, and other aspects of highquality writing and speaking
● Communicating in a civilized manner that reflects contemporary expectations of business etiquette, even when dealing with indifferent or hostile audiences
● Communicating ethically, even when choices aren’t crystal clear
● Managing your time wisely and using resources effi ciently
Physical means by which the signal is transmitted.
The main channels are light waves, sound waves, radio waves, telephone cables, the nervous system, and the like
The Channel
3 Types of Medium
1. The presentational media: the voice, the face, the body. They use
the ‘natural’ languages of spoken words, expressions, gestures, and
so on. They require the presence of the communicator, for he or she
is the medium; they are restricted to the here and now, and produce
acts of communication.

2. The representational media: books, paintings, photographs, writing,
architecture, interior decorating, gardening, etc.

3.The mechanical media: telephones, radio, television, telexes etc
This is merely to say that the
personal and social consequences of any medium—that is, of any extension of ourselves—result
from the new scale that is introduced into our affairs by each extension
of ourselves, or by any new technology.
Marshall McLuhan
The medium is the message
Initial interaction among strangers is theorized to be motivated primarily by the goal of reducing uncertainty, both in relation to making one’s own behavior and the behavior of others more predictable and providing explanations for such behavior (Berger & Calabrese, 1975)
Uncertainty Reduction Theory
Uncertainty leads to information-seeking behavior, as individuals are motivated to monitor other people’s
behavior in social situations and engage in a variety of strategies to find out more about
others, such as covert observation, asking questions, or communicating to encourage others
to reveal more about themselves (Berger, 1979)
Agenda setting theory (1972)
In choosing and displaying news, editors, newsroom staff, and broadcasters play an important part in shaping political reality. Readers learn not only about a given issue, but also how much importance to attach to that issue from the amount of information in a news story and its position.
the media sets the public agenda, in the sense that they may not exactly tell you what to think, but they may tell you what to think about.
Frames of Reference
the method of organizing information based on previous experiences
Selective Listening

selective perception used to block out new information, especially if it conflicts with the receivers beliefs
the manipulation of info. by the sender so that the message received is perceived as positive or meaningful
Status Difference
the difference in power or position forms a communication gap between superiors and subordinates
Communication overload
an excessive ammount of info. may cause a receiver to ignore most of the message


In one-way communication information is transferred in only one direction;
from the source to the target audience.

With one-way communication there is no direct interaction between the persons involved. The receiver has no chance to get clarification or to question the information received.

Oneway communication follows' .the linear Source-Message-Channel~Receiver (S-M-C-R) model of communication. Since there is no feedback, the source cannot find out whether the receiver tias understood the message.

Examples of one-way communications systems are radio and television broadcasts, newspapers, advertisements and other mass media. Within an organisation, the notice board and public address system are one-way systems.
Rai, Urmila, and Rai, S.M.. Managerial Communication (1). Mumbai, IN
One-way Communication
Two-way communication is interactive.

It involves both persons fully.

In a normal two-way conversation, the persons constantly altemate between being source and receiver.

The receiver can ask for clarification or challenge the source or add one's own ideas and views to the conversation. At the end of such a conversation, both gain information on the issue talked about as well as about each other.

Rai, Urmila, and Rai, S.M. (2009)
Two-way communication

the use of words and language is called verbal communication;
communication by using other symbols is called non-verbal communication.
Rai, Urmila, and Rai, S.M.. Managerial Communication (2009).
Verbal and Non-verbal Communication
Oral communication is more natural and immediate.

It is natural to speak when the other person is present;

Oral communication requires that both the parties should be present and attentive at the same time.

This requires certain skills of both; each must be able to respond to the body language of the other, and must be able to make immediate response to what the other says.

Oral communication has the advantage of immediate feedback a,nd opportunities to seek and give clarification.

Rai, Urmila, and Rai, S.M.. Managerial Communication (2009).
Written and Oral
Written and oral are both forms of verbal communication.
Oral Communication
Written communication has to be used when the other person is not present and not available on the telephone.

Long and complex messages are best conveyed in writing.

A written message can go beyond time limitations, since it can be preserved and can wait for the attention of the intended receiver.

Written communication is separated from the sender and has no support from the sender's personality and voice.

Rai, Urmila, and Rai, S.M.. Managerial Communication (2009).
Written Communication
Intrapersonal and Interpersonal
Intrapersonal communication is what goes on within the mind.

There is a continuous flow of thoughts in the mind; the thoughts do not follow any particular sequence but go on according to the individual's personal associations and experiences; many of these thoughts are at the sub-conscious level.

Sometimes, some thoughts come up to the conscious level and get more attention. When a person is engaged in active thinking as in planning or solving a problem, the intrapersonal communication becomes clear and logical.

Rai, Urmila, and Rai, S.M. (2009).

Intrapersonal communication
Interpersonal communication is between two or more persons.
Most forms of communication are interpersonal; it is the most important method of building up and maintaining relationships and of working together.

Interpersonal communication
The intrapersonal communication of both persons affects their interpersonal communication - thoughts, views, opinions and attitudes, which are a part of intrapersonal communication, influence how we speak/write and how we understand and interpret messages that we receive.
Rai, Urmila, and Rai, S.M. (2009).
Rai, Urmila, and Rai, S.M.
Group Communication
Group communication takes place in a meeting. In the course of the meeting, each member receives some impression of every other and develops acquaintance. Group discussion is a very useful activity in organisations. It helps in understanding a situation, in exploring possibilities and in solving problems because it allows a multiple point of view.
Mass communication is public communication.

It includes messages disseminated by radio, television, the press and the cinema.

Within an organisation, the notice-board, bulletins, house journals, public address system and circulars are vehicles for mass communication.

It is used for circulating information and instructions to the people as in government notifications; for disseminating information about themselves for the purpose of building up public relations and public image by organisations; for advertising products and services by commercial companies; and for propaganda by various interested groups.
Rai, Urmila, and Rai, S (2009).
Mass Communication
Mass communication is usually one-way communication, with a single source and multiple receivers.

Various gatekeepers - reporters, editors, camera-people - filter and pare down the information at many stages along the way; therefore the receiver gets only a very small part of the total information.

The source is normally a complex formal organisation like a broadcast station or a newspaper office and press.

It is directed towards large audiences.

The messages are public -the content is open to all. distribution; it tries to increase the number of receivers.

The source does not structure the distribution; it tries to increase the number of recievers.

Audiences are heterogeneous -of many different kinds - in composition; they consist of people living in widely different conditions in widely different cultures.

Mass media can establish simultaneous contact with very large numbers of people at a distance from the source and widely separated from one another.

The following characteristics distinguish mass communication from other forms like interpersonal or group communication.
Channel Selection In deciding which channel is most appropriate, there are other factors to consider in addition to channel richness (Timm, 1986):
• The importance of the message. Important messages usually require the faceto-face channel

Anything that interferes with communication by distorting or blocking the message
is noise.

External noise includes distractions in the environment, such as the speaker’s poor grammar, papers being shuffled, phones ringing, people talking, cold air in the room, and lights that are too dim.

Internal noise refers to conditions of the
communicators such as a headache, daydreaming, lack of sleep, preoccupation with other problems, or lack of knowledge on the topic. Any of these noises can distort or block communication.
Ability to put yourself in another’s shoes
Understanding another’s perspective

Cognitive complexity
The ability to analyze the behavior of others in a variety of ways

Looking at the situation from a variety of angles (rather than just your perspective)

Observing your own behaviors as if you are outside yourself
Imagining how others are interpreting your behaviors
Being aware of how your behaviors affect others

Commitment to the relationship
Level of commitment to a relationship determines willingness to communicate effectively
We work harder at communicating in relationships we genuinely care about

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