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CES 301 Final

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Tamara Jonoubeh

on 3 December 2010

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Transcript of CES 301 Final

of Women by: Tamara
Jonoubeh Disposability The of women by: Tamara
Jonoubeh These are the hands of
an old lady. "Empowerment of women is no easy task because gender inequality in the distribution of power is deeply embedded in cultural factors. A change of this kind requires a huge effort. But an investment in women and girls is an investment in the future" (Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), 2010). Gender Gender is created by a culture organized in ways that encourages people to use difference to elevate or oppress, value or devalue, etc. (Lorber, 113 & 114). “Gender refers to the social distinctions between boys and girls and men and women that are socially constructed rather that biologically determined. These distinctions are reflected in the roles that boys and girls play in society and the status that they occupy within it. Gender roles tend to be dynamic. They vary from one culture and time period to another and are characterized by unequal power relationships” (LeMaynoe). The question is, how do we unravel the complications of the disposed and oppressed woman? How do we identify the subordination of women, if these subordinations are identified with the origins of human culture? The disposability of women was created within shared cultural, social, and historical contexts that speak across time and space. This becomes the analysis of patriarchy. According to Heidi Hartmann, women are historically oppressed and denied under a universal patriarchal division of labor. Under Hartmann’s article, Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Job Segregation by Sex, “The present status of women in the labor market and the current arrangement of sex-segregated jobs is the result of a long process of interaction between patriarchy and capitalism” (167). Hartmann emphasizes on the hierarchical relation between women and men. She notes that the system of male oppression of women has been consciously and subconsciously reinforced through social systems (168). What is being produced in and outside of the factories changes from day to day, week to week through different body parts of the female body. Products are produced through discrete parts; fingers, hands, legs, arms, etc., which are assembled to assemble other things. The body is constructed for the ends of the factory, and once one extends its own body, one’s self is never the same. Through this, the burden of life falls on women. This is the global inequality that women face. Other forms of exclusion – such as poverty, ethnicity or minority status – can affect girls more negatively and compound gender discrimination.

Gender gaps can grow as girls reach adolescence, thereby reducing the gains already made for girls in their early childhoods (Event in New York Addresses Persistent and Growing Gender Inequalities, 2010). 1 2 Work Cited "Event in New York Addresses Persistent and Growing Gender Inequalities." UNICEF- Basic Education and
Gender Equality. Mar. 2010. Web. 2 May 2010. <http://www.unicef.org/girlseducation/index_52904.html>. “Gender awareness is a critical aspect of all UNICEF programming. Ending gender bias and discrimination is crucial to the empowerment of women and girls and to the achievement of gender equality in education. Applying a gender perspective helps to make differences in power relations visible. It also helps us to see more clearly the needs and rights of girls and boys in particular geographical, cultural and economic contexts” (LeMoyne). http://www.unicef.org/mdg/gender.html If we do not speak, who will? "Join the Conversation" http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photo-of-the-day/woman-plaza-canada-pod/ http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photos/photo-camp-pine-ridge-2009/#little-foot_17340_600x450.jpg http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photo-of-the-day/green-window-pod/ http://www.adverbox.com/ads/unicef-turkey/ http://www.unicef.org/ http://broadartfoundation.org/artist_43.html http://thegreatredression.wordpress.com/2010/01/ ww.unicef.org/sowc07/lifecycle/index.html Lorber, Judith. "The Social Construction of Gender." The Social Construction of Difference and Inequality: Race, Class,
Gender, and Sexuality. By Tracy E. Ore. 4th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2006. 111-18. Hartmann, Heidi. "Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Job Segregation by Sex." Signs: Women and the Workplace:
The Implications of Occupational Segregation 3rd ser. 1 (1976): 37-69. These exploited bodies are at the expense of skilled work, which demands knowledge and training. But according to Wright, the "male supervisory brain transmits skill and training through an unskilled, laboring female body without actually training or skilling-up that same body. In this way, the female laborer continues to represent the perpetually unskilled and untrainable woker whose value diminishes through time" (47). How can we improve these conditions? Wright, Melissa W. Disposable Women and Other Myths of Global Capitalism. New York: Routledge, 2006 Two factors that can cause "unequal power relationships" or gender gaps to grow. We are in a world of systems, pushed through patriarchy and capitalism, which continues to map the entire world. Women across borders are underscored through the interconnections of race, class, gender, and sexuality. Although categories of difference, race, and gender relations do not run parallel, they intersect and confirm each other. The complicity among these categories of difference enables patriarchy to justify and maintain the historical, cultural, social, and economic power of elites. The disposability of women is historically constructed through the exclusion of the dominant group. The concept of gender is created by a culture organized in ways that encourages the use of difference to include or exclude, reward or punish, value or devalue. Declaring something as right, dictates somethingwrong. For example, oppression is defined by freedom and ugliness is defined by beauty (depending on the viewer and who is being viewed). Therefore, women are defined by men. <http://www.minbuza.nl/en> Home - MinBuza.nl. Web. 03 May 2010. <http://www.minbuza.nl/en> "YouTube - UNICEF: Call to Improve the Rights of Women and Girls." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 04 May 2010. UNICEF: Call to Improve the Rights of Women and Girls. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)." Home - MinBuza.nl. Web. 04 May 2010.
<http://www.minbuza.nl/en/Key_Topics/Millennium_Development_Goals_MDGs/ Dutch_aim_for_
MDG_3/MDG3_Fund> LeMoyne. "Gender." UNICEF. Web. 3 May 2010. <http://www.unicef.org/girlseducation/focus_gender.html>. The question is, how do we unravel the complications of the disposed and oppressed woman? How do we identify the subordination of women, if these subordinations are identified with the origins of human culture? The disposability of women was created within shared cultural, social, and historical contexts that speak across time and space. This becomes the analysis of patriarchy. According to Heidi Hartmann, women are historically oppressed and denied under a universal patriarchal division of labor. Under Hartmann’s article, Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Job Segregation by Sex, “The present status of women in the labor market and the current arrangement of sex-segregated jobs is the result of a long process of interaction between patriarchy and capitalism” (167). Hartmann emphasizes on the hierarchical relation between women and men. She notes that the system of male oppression of women has been consciously and subconsciously reinforced through social systems (168).
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