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EDUCATION

TOK Presentation on reasons's role in making ethical decisions. This presentation scored a 9/10.
by

Jessica Suratso

on 7 February 2016

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Transcript of EDUCATION

EDUCATION
REAL LIFE SITUATION:
rising college tuition prices in the US
WORKS CITED

http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2013/10/23/charts-just-how-fast-has-college-tuition-grown
The price index for college tuition grew by nearly
80%
between
August 2003
and
August 2013
.
Nearly
twice
as fast as growth in costs in medical care, also known for fast-rising prices.
Faster growth in price compared to prices in any other category
Bidwell, Allie. "The Rise in Tuition Is Slowing, But College Still Costs More." Http://www.usnews.com/. Allie Bidwell, 24 Oct. 2013. Web. 27 Aug. 2014. <http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2013/10/24/the-rise-in-tuition-is-slowing-but-college-still-costs-more?page=2>.
"Ethics." Theory of Knowlege.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2014. <http://www.theoryofknowledge.net/areas-of-knowledge/ethics/>
"Reason." Theory of Knowlege.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2014. <http://www.theoryofknowledge.net/ways-of-knowing/reason/>.
Lewin, Tamar. "Burden of College Loans on Graduates Grows." The New York Times. The New York Times, 11 Apr. 2011. Web. 21 Sept. 2014. <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/12/education/12college.html?_r=2&>.
"University Budgets: Where Your Fees Go." University Rankings, Guides, Forums & Events. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2014. <http://www.topuniversities.com/student-info/student-finance/university-budgets-where-your-fees-go>.
"Ethics: A General Introduction." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2014. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/introduction/intro_1.shtml>.
"How Do We Form an Ethical Position?" N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2014. <http%3A%2F%2Fwww.theoryofknowledge.net%2Fareas-of-knowledge%2Fethics%2Fhow-do-we-arrive-at-an-ethical-position%2F>.
"What Other Types of Reasoning Are There?" Theoryofknowledge.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2014. <http://www.theoryofknowledge.net/ways-of-knowing/reason/what-other-types-of-reasoning-are-there/>.
Jessica & Chai Won
Grade 12

What role does
reason
play in making
ethical decisions
?
Our Knowledge Question is...
Why should you care?
Because...
Yes, it sucks, however...
We all plan to go to university
Education is important and a key factor to success
It's a privilege that many can't afford
Although most of us aren't paying ourselves, it is important to be knowledgeable about the cost of our education
Don't take it for granted
Ethics
Reason


Thought Process
EDUCATION: UNIVERSITY
mostly pretty expensive, only some people can afford it
expensive, "more prestigious" schools: entitlement?
Who gets to have a "good" education?
local, government owned schools, so that MORE people can afford it
quality comes into question
SO.
What are the
ethical considerations
in charging people to gain education?
college prices
are
increasing
is this happening because of...
THESE ARE ALL USAGES OF REASON
What role does
reason
play in deciding if people should be charged to gain knowledge?
WAYS OF KNOWING
reason
n.It is the way in which we try to make sense of the world using logic, rationality, comparison, judgement, and experience, although it is another word that is used in a lot of different ways.
What role does

reason
play in making

ethical decisions?


A HUGE ROLE
Claims
Counter Claims
Money
is
required to give you a good, higher education
Spent on faculty, janitors, maintenance workers, accommodation, food etc.
It would be
un
ethical
not
to pay them or pay them for less than what their skills should be paid for
What role does
reason
play in making
ethical decisions
?
At Yale, staff costs made up 63% of the university’s total operating expenditure in 2010-11.
Similarly, at the City University of Hong Kong (CUHK), staff salaries and benefits* accounted for 62% of the university’s spending during this period.

*staff salaries and benefits refer to child care, health insurance, and pensions

within ethical considerations
mini conclusion
Rise in tuition fees can be both ethical and unethical at the same time depending on the perspective taken.
university
students
Unethical because they struggle to pay the tuition fees
Ethical because they actually need the money
AREAS OF KNOWLEDGE
1. ethics
n. the moral principles governing or influencing conduct
What role does
reason
play in making
ethical decisions
?

Claims
There is the option of financial aid or student loans that can help the students and their families with the prices of the tuition and boarding etc

Counterclaims
College seniors who borrow to finance their education now graduate with
an average of $24,000 in debt
, and student loan debt now tops credit card debt among Americans.

EMOTION IN REASON
Ways of knowing
Emotions: an
affective state of consciousness
in which joy, sorrow, fear, hate, or the like, is experienced, as
distinguished from cognitive
and
volitional states of consciousness.
When we make a decision, our emotions can conflict, and affect our reasoning
having intense emotion toward something
affects reason (logic) of policeman
leading to unclear decisions
Example: Michael Brown
Policeman having intense emotion towards Brown
Emotions made him less aware of his reason
End up killing and making unclear/ bad decisions

They have to pay back the money and spend a majority of their lives paying the univeristy until they pay off the loans
MINI CONCLUSION
rise in education fee can be both reasonable and unreasonable depending on the perspective
university
students
students
Reasonable because money is needed and students who can't pay it are (sometimes) given option of scholarship or financial aid or student loans
Unreasonable because students have to pay back the money they borrowed which is not a good thing for them
Reason in other words, it's basically LOGIC.
Without the reason, we cannot make a proper decision
Reason
decisions
right
wrong

Ethical decisions can be
molded differently
into each individual by multiple factors such as:
Upbringing
Religion
Past models
Normally, when people realize it would be morally right to do something (e.g. help someone across the street), they get that it'd be
irrational
to not do it.
However - "gut instinct"
Ethics can provide a
moral framework
Ethical rules and principles enable us to take a
higher, cooler ground
and look at the difficult situation with a more steady mind
Ethical decisions are the choices we make that are
ruled by our ethical standards
.
There isn’t a one-size-fits-all type of answer: moral ambiguity
Shared knowledge
among groups of people are not necessarily the same for everyone
Application
Other RLS:
Horseshoe crab's blood
NOW GOING BACK TO OUR RLS...
University is expensive, let's face it.
Many people lack the resources to pay for it.
Education, especially nowadays, is essential for success.
Using ethics, we can evaluate if charging people to gain knowledge is ethical.
Religious Knowledge Systems
This influences a person's beliefs system and personal knowledge
Especially if raised with the religious knowledge system - their shared knowledge might be completely different, they wouldn't even know it

different religion = different ethics
Example:
religion
n. a particular system of faith and worship
what else influences ethics?
Through religion, we form a belief system
values and morals
this affects
which affects
our judgement of right and wrong
.
.
.
affects ethics and ethical standards.
abortion
What role does

reason

play in making

ethical decisions?
Conclusion:
Reason plays a large role in making ethical decisions.
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING
Ethics
Reason
Emotion
Religious Knowledge Systems
Ethics & Reason: The relationship
so how does reason affect ethics
really
Something we use when we make a decision
Often instinctive -> subconscious & past, similar experiences
What we use when we try and figure out which decision or choice is morally "right" or "wrong"
Reason allows us to access the outcomes of our actions
Despite emotion or desires
-> "Justice"
When it's just reason.
Reason + Other stuff
We are human because we use more than reason (e.g. emotions) when accessing a situation
Example: Family vs Stranger
Example: Helping someone who dropped stuff when you're late
They are the
moral principles
by which we
govern our behavior and decisions
to be right or wrong.
->Collectively & individually
Claims and Counterclaims
in using Reason
Reason is something that can change depending on our perspective
People's Reason changes with different individuals
People have limited control over reason
Mostly instinctive
Example: Buying coffee
Going back to our RLS...
What role does

reason
play in making

ethical decisions?

We can make better decisions, whether ethical or not, when using Reason.
Using Reason, we can evaluate whether the decisions we make are ethical or not.
Reason CAN be used to argue that...
Prices are increasing because of prices do need to increase
However, it can also be used to argue that too much of an increase is illogical
Order of Contents
1. Real Life Situation
a. Who cares?
2. Thought Process to Knowledge Question
a. Knowledge Question
3. Area of Knowledge
a. Ethics
4. Ways of Knowing
a. Reason
5. Ethics & Reason: The Relationship
a. Strengths and Weaknesses
6. Closing
IT'S A JOURNEY, STICK THROUGH IT WITH US :)
THANK YOU :)
Full transcript