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BIOPHYSIOLOGIC MEASURES AND OTHER DATA COLLECTION METHODS

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Rolanel Elron Rica

on 30 July 2014

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Transcript of BIOPHYSIOLOGIC MEASURES AND OTHER DATA COLLECTION METHODS

OBJECTIVES
Identify major types of data collection methods
To represent an overview of biophysiologic measure
To illustrate their use in research
To note consideration to use them
USE OF BIOPHYSIOLOGIC MEASURES IN NURSING RESEARCH
Study of biophysiologic processes
Effect of nursing intervention on human psychological process
Correlate physiologic functioning with health outcomes

ADVANTAGES
Accurate precise & sensitive
Objective
Instrument used are valid and reliable
Biophysiologic measures are not expensive

BIO-PHYSIOLOGIC MEASURES & OTHER DATA COLLECTION METHODS
INTRODUCTION
Most nursing research studies involves collection of data through self-reports or observation.
The trend in nursing research has been toward increased use of measures to assess the physiologic status of study participants and to evaluate clinical outcomes.
The National Institute for Nursing Research(NINR) emphasize the need for more physiologically based nursing research.

BIOPHYSIOLOGIC MEASURES
Focuses on biophysiologic phenomena that are measured through specialized technical equipment.

MAJOR TYPES
INVIVO MEASURES
Measurements performed directly with in or on living organisms themselves
May use complex instrumentation system with computers
May be simple – thermometer and stethoscope.
IN VITRO MEASURES
Measurements performed outside the organism’s body Specimens collected and tested outside body
Blood chemistry, micro biologic, cytological specimens

CONSIDERATIONS FOR PHYSIOLOGIC MEASUREMENTS
Will measure yield good information? Does it fit research
questions/hypothesis and variables of study?
What other methods of measurement could be used? Invasive &
Non-invasive
Equipment and supply costs; reliability of equipment and complexity of operation
Training of personnel

DISADVANTAGES
Interferences that create artifacts in Biophysiologic measures
High degree of interaction among the major Biophysiologic system

RECORDS,DOCUMENTS & AVAILABLE DATA
ADVANTAGES
Relatively inexpensive
Good sense of background information
Provides a behind-the-scenes that took at a program that may not be directly observable
PRIVACY ACT 1988(Privacy Act)
Is an Australian law enacted to protect individuals against possible misuse of records in hospitals , agencies , schools & businesses
Q Methodology
Refers to constellation of
Substantive
Statistical
Psychometric concepts for research on individuals

HISTORY OF Q METHOD
William Stephenson
introduced Q Method in 1935.
He said it offered psychology as a scientific approach through which a systematic examination & understanding of individuals’ subjectivity could be achieved
His contemporaries disagreed and there was severe criticism of the method, due to its departure from traditional factor analysis.
Q Method fell out on 1940-1960,but revived by US in 1970 & and UK in 1980

Q Procedures
It consists of cards often as many as 40 or 50.
The goal is to sort the cards into one fine columns.
The qualities in each column are then recorded and the result are used to assist the patient in determining issues he or she wishes to work in treatment.

PROJECTED TECHNIQUES
Self-report methods normally depend on respondents’ willingness to share personal information.
Involving asking subjects to interpret or fill visual stimuli, complete sentence, or report on what associations particular words bring to mind.

TYPES OF PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE
Rorschach Test
Thematic Apperception Test
Verbal projective Technique
Association Techniques
Completion Technique
RORSCHACH TEST
Created in 1920’s by Swiss Psychologist Hermann Rorschach(1884-1922).
Best example of a pictorial projective device.

PROCEDURE:
It consist of 10 cards, each containing inkblot(some are in black and white, some in color )
Subjects asked to described what he/she see in each card
.

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST
PROCEDURES

TAT materials consist of 20 cards that contains pictures.
People are asked to make up a story for each picture, inventing explanation of :
what led up to the event shown:
what is happening at the moment;
What the characters are feeling & thinking;
What kind of outcome will result.

Verbal Projective Techniques
Association Techniques
Word association method is the best example of association techniques.
Participant presents a series of words, to which they respond with the first thing that comes to mind.
The word-association technique has also been used to study creativity, interests & attitudes.

Completion Techniques

The person is given a set of incomplete sentences and asked to complete them in any desired manner.
This approach is frequently used as a method of measuring attitudes or some aspects of personality.
Some examples include the ff:
1.) The thing I most admire about nurses……………………
2.) A good nurse should always………………………………
3.) When I think of a nurse, I feel…………………………………


Verbal Projective Techniques
VIGNETTES
Primarily seen used quantitatively to study
ATTITUDES
PERCEPTIONS
BELIEFS
NORMS
A
lternative method of collecting data by presenting hypothetical situations to which respondent are asked to react.
This method is used to voice the opinion of research participants on topics which may not have had experien
ce.

SOME PIONEERING RESEARCHERS HAVE USED VIGNETTES QUALITATIVELY EXPLORING TOPICS AS DIVERSE AS:

COGNITIVE AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS
Cognitive Test
Are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of humans.
Include various forms of IQ tests.

Neuropsychological Test
Designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway.
TYPES OF COGNITIVE TESTS
Intelligence Test
Evaluate a person’s global ability to perceive relationships and solve test

Aptitude Test
Measure a person’s potential for achievement

INDIVIDUAL TEST EXAMPLE

STANFORD-BINET
Use to diagnose developmental or cognitive deficiencies in young children

WECHSLER I.Q TEST
Design to measure intelligence in adults and older adolescents.

GROUP TEST EXAMPLE

SCHOLASTIC ASSESSMENT TEST (SAT)
Former name was Scholastic Aptitude Test
Its goal is to measure students scholastic ability and achievement rather than his or her aptitude.
It measure verbal and mathematical abilities & achievement in a variety of subject areas.


SYNTHESIS
Experts often possess more data than judgment.
-Colin Powell

Abstract
By:
RAQUEL J. DULLIYAO ORCID
NORFREDO M. DULAY ORCID
EDNA P. YUMOL ORCID


One of the major socio-economic problems besetting the Philippine Economy is the widespread poverty. Based on the Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES), there are 4.7 million poor Filipino households translated to poverty incidence of 35.7%. Urban poverty incidence was 28.8%, while rural poverty incidence was 53.7%. This study determined the feasibility of establishing an economic program on Thrift and Savings scheme to households and individuals earning at least or below the standard wage either on daily basis, contractual, commission or seasonal. It assessed the possibility of developing microfinance within the marginalized sector as a self-help institution to provide financial assistance among them. Adopting a model on microfinance establishment, the study has identified respondents who have no stable job or permanent source of income. Policies on membership were strictly followed including savings, loans, and collection. Microfinance was set with agreed minimal regular savings and was maintained and pooled. Loans with minimal interest were granted. Trainings, workshops, and regular meetings were conducted. The study concludes that the establishment of microfinance in the area was very feasible.
Casigayan Microfinance: A Feasible Project for the Poor Families of Northern Philippines
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