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Chapter 6: Kinesics: Body Movement, Gestures, and Posture

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on 1 September 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 6: Kinesics: Body Movement, Gestures, and Posture

Do the Locomotion
Chapter Objectives
Define
kinesics

Identify Scheflen's three dimensions of body movement related to posture and the primary nonverbal cues related to each dimension

Contrast self-synchrony, interactive synchrony, and mimicry

Describe the relationship between posture, height, and status/dominance

Understand how factors such as culture, sex, and status contribute to the development of an individual style of walking
Chapter Objectives (cont.)
Discuss research findings related to female and male sitting behavior

Identify, define, and provide examples of each of Ekman and Friesen's five kinesic categories

Overview primary cultural differences related to the use of gestures

Discuss major findings related to kinesic research on flirting and the communication of attraction

Discuss major findings related to kinesic research on prelinguistic children's acquisition of gestures, a form of sign language between parents and children
Stand Up for Yourself
Scheflen's Dimensions of Posture

Inclusiveness/noninclusiveness
is the degree to which a person's body posture includes or excludes one person, relative to other people

Face-to-face/parallel
is the degree to which two people face each other directly versus orienting themselves side by side

Congruence/incongruence
refers to the degree of mirroring or imitation of the behavior between two or more people

Self-synchrony
refers to a person;s coordination of speech and body movement or how coordinated a person is in her or his own behavior

Interactive synchrony
focuses on the coordination of speech and body movement between at least two speakers

The
arms akimbo
position is a spread-legged stance with hands on the hips, and is a common posture often connected with dominance
Be Seated
Kinesics
is defined as the study of human movement, gestures, and posture
Reflexive Cycle of Nonverbal Communication
Phase 1 requires you to reflect on your personal kinesic behavior, such as how you move or gesture or an use hand signals

Phase 2 asks you to make changes in your kinesic behavior, based on the inventory completed in phase 1

Phase 3 asks you to inventory the kinesic behaviors of others
Sex differences in sitting behavior are easily detectable in American culture
Typically, men assume open sitting positions, meaning that their legs are often extended and spread apart

Women are more likely to cross their legs at the knee with the crossed leg hanging down, or to cross their legs at the ankles
Ekman and Friesen's Kinesic Categories
Emblems
are nonverbal cues that have specific, widely understood meanings in a given culture and may actually substitute for a word or phrase

Illustrators
are nonverbal gestures used to complement, contradict, repeat, substitute for, or accent a verbal message

Affect displays
are nonverbal gestures, postures, and facial expressions that communicate emotion
Regulators
control the interaction or flow of communication between people (i.e., head nods, vocal expressions, facial expressions)

Adaptors
are nonverbal behaviors that help us satisfy a personal need, cope with emotions, and adapt to the immediate situation
Walk the Walk
A good deal of research exists on the adult walking style, or
gait
as it's termed in scientific studies

Our culture, as well as our genetic profile, physiological features, upbringing, and psychological characteristics, shapes the way we walk and stand
Chapter 6: Kinesics: Body Movement, Gestures, and Posture
Applications of Kinesics Research
Heterosexual men ten to view flirting as a more sexual behavior than women do, and men often misinterpret women's friendly behaviors as signs of sexual attraction and interest
Courtship behavior
involves those nonverbal actions we consciously and unconsciously exhibit when we are attracted to someone

Quasi-courtship
involves nonverbal actions we consciously and unconsciously exhibit when we are attracted to someone, but the motive is not to establish a relationship or make sexual contact
Courtship readiness
is the first stage of flirting, in which we begin to alter our normal nonverbal patterns

Preening
is the second stage of flirting, in which we attend to our appearance and make adjustments
Applications of Kinesics Research (cont.)
Positional cues
mark the third stage, where we use posture and body orientation to draw the attention of another person

Appeals to invitation
are the fourth stage, where we use more obvious and direct nonverbal cues to signal availability and interest
Reflexive Cycle of Nonverbal Communication (cont.)
Phase 4 requires you to engage with other people in mutual transaction of kinesic behavior

Phase 5 asks you to reflect and assess the whole process, and learn about your own and others' body movements that make you a more effective communicator
Summary
Kinesics is the study of human movement, gestures, and posture

Scheflen's research identifies three dimensions of posture: inclusiveness/noninclusiveness, face-to-face/parallel, and congruence/incongruence

Our walk is influenced by culture, genetic profile, physiological features, upbringing, and psychological characteristics

Self-synchrony refers to a person's coordination of speech and body movement or how coordinated a person is in her or his own behavior

Interactive synchrony focuses on the coordination of speech and body movement between at least two speakers

Mimicry is the unconscious imitation of postures, facial expressions, mannerisms, and other verbal and nonverbal behaviors

Height is associated with confidence, extroversion, and high status in American culture, and good posture conveys confidence and interest

Our genetic profile, culture, physiological features, upbringing, and psychological characteristics shapes the way we walk and stand

Some generalizations have been made about the sexes and their ways of walking, such that some believe a person's sex can be determined simply by observing that person's walk

Typically men assume open sitting positions, meaning that their legs are often extended and spread apart rather than close together
Women are more likely to cross their legs at the knee with the crossed leg hanging down, or to cross their legs at the ankles

Ekman and Friesen identified five kinesic categories: emblems, illustrators, affect displays, regulators, and adapters

Emblems are nonverbal cues that have specific, widely understood meanings in a given culture and may actually substitute for a word or phrase (peace sign, OK sign)

Illustrators are nonverbal gestures used to complement, contradict, repeat, substitute for, or accent a verbal message (i.e., using gestures to give directions)

Affect displays are nonverbal gestures, postures, and facial expressions that communicate emotion (i.e, tears when we are sad)

Regulators control the interaction or flow of communication between people (i.e., head nods or vocal expressions)

Adapters are nonverbal behaviors that help us satisfy a personal need, cope with emotions, and adapt to the immediate situation (i.e., adjusting our clothes, makeup, or hair)

Gestures such as greeting rituals are not universal across cultures

Americans are fond of using the handshake for a greeting ritual, whereas in Japan a bow is acceptable, and Eskimos bang each other on the head or shoulders

Heterosexual men tend to view flirting as a more sexual behavior than women do, and men often misinterpret women's friendly behaviors as signs of sexual attraction and interest

Pre-linguistic children are capable of acquiring gestures, which results in a form of sign language between parents and children
Nonverbal Reflexive Cycle
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