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Kingdom Fungi

A look at the Kingdom Fungi.

Laura Henry

on 10 January 2013

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Transcript of Kingdom Fungi

Kingdom Fungi by: Laura K. Henry deuteromycotes Candida Albicans
-this is the type of yeast that causes diseases in humans
-as humans we are surrounded by yeast and it has many opportunities to infect us: mostly by oral or genital infections Tolypocladium Inflatum
-gives us the immunosuppressant Cyclosporin
-this drug is used in transplant surgeries to keep the body from rejecting the new organ
-this fungus is found living in the soil basidiomycotes zygomycotes ascomycotes A mushroom walks into a bar and takes a seat. The bartender comes over and says, "Wow, it must be really boring to be a mushroom." And the mushroom says, "No, actually it's not, I'm a real fungi." General Characteristics -Fungi are heterotrophs: they cannot produce their own food, they need to get their nutrients from other organic molecules
-Most types of fungi are multicellular
-Fungi have the ability to live in air, water, soil, on plants and animals
-They can reproduce asexually or sexually
-All fungi are eukaryotic: chromosomes are located in the nuclei that are surrounded by a membrane and have various organelles bound in a membrane Did You Know? Many people think that fungi are similar to plants or are a type of plant.

However, fungi have more in common with animals than plants.
-the carbohydrate that fungi store is glycogen which is the same thing found in the muscle and liver cells of animals (a storage carbohydrate in plants is starch)
-fungi also feed in a similar way that animals do since they are heterotrophs (but more on that later!)
-the cell walls of fungi are made of a different carbohydrate called “chitin” which can be found in the exoskeleton of insects (the cell walls of plants are made of cellulose) Common Structure of Fungi A few types of fungi are unicellular (such as yeast), but most are multicellular. The main part of a multicellular fungus is a network of root-like filaments called hyphae (singular is hypha). The network of the hyphae is called a mycelium. The hyphae in most kinds of fungi have been divided into multinucleate cells by walls called septa (septate hyphae). Septa are porous structures so that the cytoplasm can flow through the hyphae. In the fungi that don’t have septa the hyphae look like one huge cell with many nuclei that flow through the cytoplasm (nonseptate/coenocytic hyphae). Fungal cells have a cell wall made up of a material called chitin. Digestion of Saprophytic Fungi The majority of fungi are saprophytes which means that they break down the dead matter of other organisms. The hyphae of this kind of fungi spread across the dead organism and secrete digestive enzymes onto the food source. This method of digestion is called extracellular digestion because food is broken down outside of the fungi’s cells. The digestive enzymes break down the organic matter into smaller molecules which is similar to how food is digested in our own stomachs. Once the molecules are small enough they can be diffused into the fungus for growth or repair. Some types of fungi are parasitic and will attach themselves onto plants and animals. These fungi can cause diseases like athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) and ringworm (tinea corporis). Parasitic fungi feed on the living cells of its host. They have a special type of hyphae called “haustoria,” which comes from the Latin word “to drink.” The haustoria enter the cells of the host plant or animal but do not immediately kill them. Digestion of Parasitic Fungi A symbiotic relationship is one that benefits both participating parties. Therefore, a fungi in that sort of relationship can feed from the attached organism and the organism is benefitted by the fungi’s presence. An example of this is that trees often have many fungi growing near their roots. This is called a mycorrhiza relationship (Greek mykes means fungus and rhiza means root). The fungi’s hyphae grow around and sometimes into the tree’s roots where they can absorb nutrients from the tree. The hyphae increase the surface area for absorption for the tree, allowing it to take up even more water and minerals. Digestion of Symbiotic Fungi Experiments have been done to compare trees with symbiotic relationships to those without. The results show that trees with a mycorrhiza relationship actually grow better than trees who don’t have a symbiotic fungus. Did You Know? A number of fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually. The different phyla in the Kingdom Fungi are partly classified by their different sexual reproductive methods. Two of the most common methods of fungal reproduction are fragmentation and sporulation.
Fragmentation occurs when a piece of the fungi’s hyphae breaks off and forms a new mycelium. Fragmentation is a method of asexual reproduction
Sporulation occurs when reproductive cells called spores are released into the air and carried by the wind to a new location. This method of reproduction is an adaptation that occurred because of many fungi living in terrestrial habitat. Sporulation is a method of asexual and sexual reproduction. The Reproduction of Fungi The gas exchange of a fungus occurs by using the soil rather than the air itself. The hyphae that extend through the soil are able to reach the tiny pockets of air that are in the soil. By doing this the oxygen can then be absorbed into the mycelium and the rest of the fungi’s cells. However, if the fungus has a part of it above the ground (a mushroom for example) then it can obtain oxygen through the atmosphere similar to how a plant would. The exception to these is yeast. If there is oxygen available to the yeast cell then it is absorbed through pores with aerobic respiration. If no oxygen is available to the cell then anaerobic respiration occurs. Gas Exchange of Fungi Fungi do not have a bloodstream to transport oxygen and other important substances. However, the way that fungi transport these necessary materials is through their cytoplasm. For microscopic fungi, nutrients are directly absorbed into the cytoplasm through the cell walls. With bigger fungi that have a mycelium, nutrients are taken up through the hyphae and further transported through the cytoplasm. Circulation of Fungi The kingdom of fungi has a variety of impacts on human existence and their surrounding environments.
For many people, the thought of fungi brings to mind images of mushrooms and puffballs cut up and ready to eat because some fungi can be used as food. Others have given us medicine such as penicillin and cyclosporin which are two very important drugs. In the complete opposite direction, many fungi cause disease in animals and plants, leading to ruined crops and death.
An environment that has a fungus living in it is affected because the fungus’ presence can decide which plants live there and thus which animals will live there as well.
The presence of fungi has also given the world the career of a mycologist, a scientist who specializes in the study of fungi. The society of mycologists believe that they’ve only discovered about 5% of all fungi in the world, which means there is much more for this kingdom to offer us. The Impact of Fungi The different phyla of this kingdom are classified due to what kind of structure is used/created during sexual reproduction. There are four different phyla: Zygospore Fungi (Zygomycotes), Club Fungi (Basidiomycotes), Sac Fungi (Ascomycotes) and Imperfect Fungi (Deuteromycotes). Classifying Fungi B A A B A B A B A B A B There are 1,500 species of Zygospore fungi and some common examples are bread moulds. Zygospore fungi usually produce asexually but save sexual reproduction for more favourable times. They produce zygospores when they reproduce sexually which is how they got their name. These zygospores are developed when two haploid hyphae of opposite mating strains (either +/-) meet and fuse together. The two types of hyphae are the downward growing rhizoids and the horizontal growing stolons. After the zygospore is created, a wall forms around it to protect it until conditions are better for it to grow and the nuclei to begin meiosis. When they produce asexually, a third kind of hyphae is created that grows upwards and above the mycelium called sporangiophores. These hyphae have sporangia at their ends which carry spores that are released when the sporangia splits open. There are four subphyla: Entomopthoromycotina, Zoopagomycotina, Kickxellomycotina, and Mucoromycotina. Zygomycotes There are 25,000 species of Club fungi and an everyday example of these are the mushrooms people eat. Club fungi have quite short lives and a fruiting body called a basidiocarps. Some of these fungi are parasitic for plants and don’t have basidiocarps. These fungi got their name because they have spores (basidiospores) which are located on their club shaped hyphae called basidia. The visible portion of the mushroom is the sexual portion and held up by a stem called a stipe. On the underside of the cap are gills lined with basidia which release basidiospores to form new hyphae. The hyphae will grow into the ground and potentially meet another hyphae of opposite mating strand. If they meet they will fuse and become a new mycelium with a nucleus of each mating type in each cell. After a time the hyphae form a compact mass called a button and is pushed above ground to become a mushroom.
There are three subphylas: Pucciniomycotina, Ustilaginomycotina, and Agaricomycotina. Basidiomycotes There are 30,000 species of Sac fungi and a well known example of one is the expensive truffle. These kinds of mushrooms are identified by small sacs called asci, which the fungi creates during sexual reproduction. The majority of the members of this phyla are saprophytes and others are parasites for plants. They usually reproduce asexually by spreading spores which become hyphae. When two hyphae of opposite mating type meet and develop an asci which carry spores inside. When the time is right the asci will split open and release the spores, or sometimes force them out. Wherever they land they will begin to form a new mycelium and start all over. In this phyla single celled yeasts are also included and they reproduce asexually by means of mitosis.
There are three subphylas: Taphrinomycotina, Saccharomycotina, and Pezizomycotina. Ascomycotes There are 25,000 species of Imperfect fungi and one of the most important examples of this is the penicillium mould. These fungi only reproduce asexually and since the phyla of the Fungi Kingdom are based on means of sexual reproduction, this is why they are called Imperfect fungi. These fungi form spores called conidia which develop into a mycelium. This phyla is diverse and very important to the human race because it gives us important medicines and foods. Deuteromycotes A B A B C A B C D Fungi of this subphyla are pathogens of insects and various invertebrates that live in the soil. Some can manipulate their hosts’ behaviour to increase the spread of their spores. Entomopthoromycotina The species of fungi in this subphyla are parasites of animals and other fungi. They form haustoria to take nutrients from their host. Zoopagomycotina These fungi are saprophytic, meaning they feed on decomposing matter. Kickxellomycotina The fungi in this subphyla are also saprophytic and commonly found on the skin of fruit but can also be found on animal dung. These kinds of fungi grow as hyphae or yeasts. Mucoromycotina Many mycologists believe that this was the first subphyla to diverge from the Basidiomycotes. Most of the fungi in this subphyla are parasites of plants, some of insects and even other fungi. These fungi can grow yeasts, hyphae or even both. Pucciniomycotina The fungi in this subphyla are parasitic on plants, there is even one that’s parasitic on humans (it causes dandruff). These fungi grow first as a yeast and end up mating as a mycelium. Ustilaginomycotina This subphyla is very diverse and important as food. These fungi can grow yeasts, hyphae, or both and have multicellular fruiting bodies. Agaricomycotina This subphyla contains species of fungi that have structures containing both yeasts and hyphae and then some with just yeasts. Taphrinomycotina This subphyla of fungi contains industrial yeasts. The species in this group do not protect their asci with fruiting bodies. Their spores are also not forcibly ejected, only released when the time is right. Saccharomycotina This subphyla contains most of the Ascomycotes and is the most diverse subphyla. These fungi do protect their asci with fruiting bodies that can range in size from microscopic to 25cm tall. Pezizomycotina Joke courtesy of: Steven Henry (my uncle) Cordyceps Myrmecophila (aka Ant Lover)
-actually lives in the ant, feeding off the ants tissues and spreading like a cancer
-they are known to be found in China and Japan
-some species of cordyceps are used in traditional Chinese medicines Conidiobolus Coronatus
-lives in soil, very common in rainforests of Africa
-can cause rhinofacial zygomycosis: which causes growths to form in the nasal area and can sometimes cause blindness Rhizopus Stonlifer
-commonly known as black bread mould
-found on bread surfaces, takes nutrients and causes damages
-grows very fast at temperatures between 15 and 30 degrees Celsius Cryphonectria Parasitica
-causes chestnut blight
-found in eastern North America
-kills large American chestnut trees, but by doing so gives smaller trees a better chance Taphrina Deformans
-causes peach leaf curl
-can affect any peach or nectarine tree that it comes in contact with
-this pathogen is thought to be able to survive through the winter Spinellus Fusiger
-commonly known as the bonnet mould
-this is a fungi that is actually parasitic to other fungi
-it grows out of the cap of whatever mushroom its host is and is the fuzzy stalks called sporangia Amoebophilus Simplex
-this fungi feeds on amoebas
-it allows the amoeba to try and eat a spore but it sticks to the amoeba
-it takes nutrients from its host and eventually grows too big for the host A B Amanita Muscaria
-found in places all around the world
-forms symbiotic relationships with trees
-if eaten by a person it causes hallucinogenic experiences Cryptomycocolax Abnormis
-this fungi is a parasite of sac fungi
-this is the only representative of the genus Cryptomycocolax
-it grows hyphae and its diameter can be between 3-6 microns Malassezia Furfur
-a yeast commonly found on the skin of animals
-causes dandruff, Pityriasis versicolor and Pityriasis folliculitis A B Entomopthora Muscae
-this is a pathogenic fungi that attacks flies and can kill them
-common in houseflies around the world
-manipulates the brains of the flies to put them in a position that increases transmission Tinea Pedis
-the fungus that causes Athlete's foot
-best living conditions: a warm, damp place like in between toes
-spread very easily in common showers, pools, locker rooms
-once you've had this you're more likely to get it another time A B A Penicillium Chrysogenum
-this fungus gives us the very common and very important medicine: Penicillin
-it is a greenish colour mould usually found on the skin of fruit B Penicillium Roqueforti
-similar to the mould that gives us a powerful antibiotic, but this one gives us cheese
-this fungus is saprophytic and is found in soil and decaying organic matter
-this mould has a very low hazard but some people may develop an allergy causing respiratory problems
-its major use is to make cheese A Tinea Corpis
-ringworm is not caused by a worm, but by this fungus
-just like Athlete's Foot this fungal infection is spread through contact
-unlike Athlete's Foot this fungus can turn up anywhere on the body Gyromitra Esculenta
-aka: the Brain mushroom
-this mushroom is commonly found in North America and Europe
-it is hazardous when eaten raw and because of this, sale of this fungus in Spain has been banned Chorioactis Geaster
-aka: Devil's Cigar/Texas Star
-this is one of the rarest fungi in the world
-they have only been seen in Texas and a few places in Japan
-when closed it looks like a cigar, but when it opens it has a star shape
-it is one of the few fungi that make a hissing sound when it releases spores Hydnellum Peckii
-aka: the bleeding tooth fungus
-the liquid that comes out of it is not always red, it can be: orange, yellow, light pink or beige
-it is not poisonous but tastes very bitter
-has antibiotic effects against streptococcus pneumoniae Amanita Phalloides
-aka: the Death Cap
-this mushroom is extremely poisonous
-found across Europe and forms symbiotic relationships with trees
-believed to have been the cause of death for Roman Emperor Claudius, Pope Clement VII and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI A B Entoloma Hochstetteri
-found in New Zealand and India
-this mushroom is not edible but it is unknown if it is poisonous
-the cap can grow up to 4cm in diameter
-a picture of this blue mushroom is found on backside of the $50 bank note of New Zealand Lycoperdon Pyriforme
-commonly known as the puffball
-this fungus is saprobic of wood
-these puffballs can survive through winter
-this fungus is edible and is eaten when the inner flesh is white Mycena Chloropholus
-a mushroom that actually glows in the dark
-these pretty little things are found in the forests of Brazil and Japan
-they are seen after monsoons and grow really well in places that are not disturbed by people A B A B Aspergillus Oryzae
-this is a mould that the Chinese and Japanese use when making soysauce
-this fungi is found in any place that has a lot of oxygen
-this mould is a contaminant of potatoes and bread as well as other starchy foods Fragmentation Sporulation A B B A B I hope you had as much fun reading this as I had making it!
The bibliography and picture bibliography have been attached to the email that sent you this link. I did try to put them in here but the weblinks for the pictures would not work. Sorry for any inconvenience.
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