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Transcript of ANCIENT GREECE
800 BC - 480 BC
480 BC - 323 BC
323 BC - 146 BC
Rise of the city-states such as Athens and Sparta.
Philosophy and Theatre were explored.
Introduction of Democracy in Athens
Alexander the Great rose to the power-conquering much of Europe and Western Asia
Festivals were a very important part of life in ancient Greece, and were a central part of worshipping the gods. They usually included a procession and a sacrifice.
FESTIVALS AND GAMES
Festivals also included various competitions, which were seen as another way to honour a god.
There were competitions in music, poetry, drama and also athletics.
One festival in Athens, held to honour Dionysos, involved a competition between playwrights. This led to the creation of some of the best known plays from ancient Greece, written by people such as Sophokles, Euripides and Aristophanes
Some of the most important festivals of ancient Greece involved athletic competition, such as the Olympic Games, which were held in honour of Zeus, and the Pythian Games, held at Delphi in honour of Apollo.
DEMOCRACY IN ATHENS
ALEXANDER THE GREAT
Where did the name Peloponnesian come from?
The word Peloponnesian comes from the name of the peninsula in southern Greece called the Peloponnese.
This peninsula was home to many of the great Greek city-states including Sparta, Argos, Corinth, and Messene.
During this time, Athens became powerful and wealthy and the Athenian empire grew under the leadership of Pericles.
Sparta and its allies became increasingly jealous and distrustful of Athens.
Finally, in 431 BC, when Sparta and Athens ended up on different sides in a conflict over the city of Corinth, Sparta declared war on Athens.
THE FIRST WAR
The first Peloponnesian War lasted for 10 years. During this time the Spartans dominated the land and the Athenians dominated the sea.
Athens built long walls all the way from the city to its seaport Piraeus. This enabled them to stay inside the city and still have access to trade and supplies from their ships.
Athens is based on Democracy.
Symbol of Freedom, Art and Democracy
Athena the goddess of Wisdom and Knowledge
Athens did not have a king, it was ruled by the people as a democracy. The people of Athens believed that no one group of people should make the laws and so citizens could choose the government officials, and vote for or against new laws. The people of Athens chose their ruler.
They held a large meeting on the slopes of a hill in Athens where any citizen could speak, and tell the government what it should be doing. This was called the Assembly, and there had to be at least 6,000 citizens at every Assembly.
Athenian democracy was not like modern democracy. Only citizens over 18 could vote. Women, slaves and foreigners could not become citizens. So democracy in Athens meant rule by the men of Athens.
Alexander III of Macedon
He changed the nature of the ancient world in little more than a decade.
Alexander was born in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia in July 356 BC.
His parents were Philip II of Macedon
His wife Olympias.
Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle.
Alexander was acknowledged as a military genius
He died of a fever in Babylon in June 323 BC
BEFORE THE WAR
After the Persian War, Athens and Sparta had agreed to a Thirty Year Peace.
They didn't want to fight each other while they were trying to recover from the Persian War.
Although the Spartans never breached the walls of Athens during the first war, many people died inside the city due to plague. This included the great leader and general of Athens, Pericles.
Sparta a beautiful town near the river Evrotas,
It was located in the centre of the Peloponnese in southern Greece
Capital of the prefecture of Lakonia.
Sparta was an armed camp where people were soldiers for the sake of being soldiers.
Boys started training for military at age 7
Boys were required to go without shoes to harden feet
Had a huge amount of Military power
Spartans never wrote a single line that was considered literature
They just knew how to fight, they liked to fight, and they sacrificed all human emotions to their ideal of military preparedness.
The city itself was destroyed by the Goths under their king, Alaric I, in 396 AD.
Women in ancient Athens had very little choices open to them.
If they were lucky, they could read a little, play an instrument, and owned slaves to do the daily household tasks.
They could not choose whom to marry
If you were a respectable woman, you could not even walk around town except occasionally to a neighbor’s house or to a religious service.
A young girl often went from her father’s house to her husband’s while she was still young, accompanied by a dowry and her virginity.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
Athens claims to be the "birthplace of democracy".
including 10 generals (strategos), magistrates (archons), and others.
Council of 500 was charged with administering decisions made by the Assembly.
The Assembly open to all citizens
During time of Pericles citizens were paid for jury service so not only the wealthy could participate.
Women did not participate in the political life of Athens.
ROLE OF WOMEN
(rule by a few)
but it had elements of
(rule by kings),
(through the election of council/senators), and
(rule by the upper class or land owning class).
Two kings who were generals in command of the armies and with some religious duties.
Five overseers (ephors) elected annually
Council or Senate(apella) of 28 council men (men over 60 and elected for life by the citizens) and the 2 kings.
They acted as judges and proposed laws to the citizens' assembly.
Girls were educated in reading and writing and could participate in sports;
They were treated more as equals to men.
The goal was to produce women who would produce strong healthy babies.
At age 18 she would be assigned a husband and return home.
Citizen women were free to move around and enjoyed a great deal of freedom.
Domestic arts (weaving, spinning, etc.) were usually left to the other classes.
Spartan women could own and control their own property.
In times of war the wife was expected to oversee her husband's property and to guard it against invaders
ROLE OF WOMEN
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
Strong army, best and most feared fighters on land.
It comes from the word
“to speak Greek or identify with the Greeks
It lasted from the death of Alexander in 323 B.C. until 31 B.C
When Roman troops conquered the last of the territories that the Macedonian king had once ruled.
Alexander The Great
He spread GREEK CULTURE across Southwest Asia, into Egypt and to India
In 338 BC, Phillip II of Macedonia invaded Greece and defeated the Greek states at the battle of Chaeronea
Old Town, Skopje, Macedonia
Lake Ohrid, Ohrid, Macedonia
TEACHER: KARLA JASBLEYDY ANAYA VERA
SUBJECT: SOCIAL STUDIES