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Jefferson as President
Transcript of Jefferson as President
Remember after the French and Indian War, Spain gained the French lands west of the Mississippi, known as Louisiana.
In 1802, President Jefferson learned that Spain and France had secretly agreed to transfer the Louisiana Territory to France.
France's new leader following the French Revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte, wanted to create new French empires in Europe and the Americas. But, following a slave revolt in Haiti that resulted in Haitian independence and wars in Europe, Napoleons plans changed.
France needed money to finance their wars in Europe.
The United States had previously sent Robert Livingston and James Monroe to France to try to buy New Orleans, but when they learned France wanted to sell all of Louisiana, they decided to offer to buy it.
The U.S. ended up paying $15 million dollars for Louisiana and doubling the size of the U.S.
Initially, President Jefferson worried that the purchase might not be legal. His strict constructionist views of the Constitution made him believe that the U.S. had no power to make such a transaction.
But, Jefferson eventually changed his views and supported the Louisiana Purchase.
Jefferson Becomes President
The Election of 1800
In Canvas, go to Discussions.
Select the discussion topic called "Bellwork for January 23, 2014".
Answer the questions in the "reply" field and submit your answer.
Identify the outcome of the Election of 1800 and how the election was decided.
Recognize Jefferson's views and reasons for the Louisiana Purchase.
Identify how the United States dealt with the Barbary Pirates.
Analyze reasons for Jefferson supporting the Embargo Act.
Federalists John Adams and Charles C. Pinckney ran against Democratic-Republicans Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
One of the most bitter and divisive elections in U.S. history.
The electoral college vote was tied between Jefferson and Burr, so per the Constitution the House decided the election.
After 36 ballots, Jefferson finally won.
To prevent this from happening again, Congress proposed the 12th Amendment to the Constitution
, which created a separate ballot for president and vice-president.
With Jefferson's election, the Democratic-Republican Party also won control of both houses of Congress.
Congress let the Alien and Sedition Acts expire.
He reduced the size of the military.
He allowed the National Bank to continue to exist (even though he had fought over its creation).
The Barbary Pirates
By 1800, the U.S. had almost 1,000 merchant ships trading around the world.
the practice of piracy, or robbery on the seas, made some foreign waters dangerous.
Pirates from the Barbary states of North Africa on the Mediterranean Sea, places like Morocco, Algiers, Tripoli, and Tunis, terrorized merchant ships.
The Barbary Pirates demanded that governments pay tribute, or protection money
, to allow their country's ships to pass safely.
the ruler of Tripoli increased the amount of tribute the U.S. had to pay, but Jefferson refused.
Tripoli declared war on the U.S. This prompted President Jefferson to blockade the port of Tripoli
with U.S. warships.
The war with the Barbary Pirates showed the United States would protect its own interests.
The image below is U.S. Navy Captain Stephen Decatur and crew attacking one of Tripoli's gunboats.
The Embargo Act
Think back to what you learned about Jay's Treaty. Remember this treaty did not fix the main issue the U.S. was having with Great Britain: impressment.
During Jefferson's presidency, France and Britain were still at war, and Britain desperately needed sailors for its navy. So, Britain continued stopping American ships and impressing Americans into the British navy
Like President Washington,
Jefferson still wanted the U.S. to remain neutral.
In response, and
thinking it would punish Britain economically, Jefferson supported Congress when it passed the Embargo Act in 1807. This act stopped trade with ALL foreign countries.
The embargo was a disaster. The loss of trade caused unemployment to rise in New England, the South could not sell its tobacco and cotton, and wheat prices fell in the West.
Congress repealed the Embargo Act in March 1809 and replaced it with the Nonintercourse Act which prohibited trade with France and Great Britain only.