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Unit 2 Revision
Transcript of Unit 2 Revision
‘And serve Him with all your hearts’ [quote from Devarim 11:13]. What kind of service comes from the heart? I would say this is prayer
(Babylonian Talmud Tractate Taanit Page 2a)
Rabbi Eliezer says: Someone who prays simply to get rid the obligation has not prayed.
(Mishna Tractate Brachot 4:4)
Three daily services: Shacharit, Mincha and Maariv.
Key prayer – Shema
Key prayer – Amidah
Minyan - "Ten who pray together – the presence of God is with them" (Babylonian Talmud Tractate Brachot Page 6a)
In the multitude of people is the king’s glory
Ten who pray together – the presence of God is with them
(Babylonian Talmud Tractate Brachot Page 6a
Examples of worship are:
Praying with Minyan
Shofar on Rosh Hashana
A person is not a person without a home
(Babylonian Talmud Tractate Yevamot Page 63a)
[Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Kotzk once asked his students] ‘Where does God live?’.
They were stunned by the strangeness of the question. ‘What does the rabbi mean, “Where does God live?” Where does God not live? Surely we are taught that there is no place devoid of His presence. He fills the heavens and the earth.’
‘No,’ said the rabbi. ‘You have not understood. God lives where we let Him in.’
Definition: Symbols in Judaism can be pictures, numbers or object that have a special significance
Judaism clearly states that it is forbidden for human beings to make any representations of God in any format; any such item would be considered an idol and breaking one of the 10 Commandments.
As well as this, it is also forbidden to use G-d's name in vain.
In many places, the Torah speaks of God
He had a human body, using anthropomorphism, such as “the hand of God” and “the eyes of God” to help us understand Hashem's actions in terms we comprehend.
10th Tevet (Asarah B’Tevet)
17th Ta’amuz (Shiva asah B’Ta’amuz)
Unit 2 Revision
Religious and Spiritual Experience
b. Prayer and Meditation
The pious men of ancient times used to spend an hour [meditating before praying], then pray, so that they could direct their heart towards their Father in Heaven
(Babylonian Talmud Tractate Brachot Page 30b)
The main method of [Jewish] meditation as outlined by Rabbi Abraham [Maimonides], thus involves the contemplation of nature. A person can contemplate the greatness of the sea, marvelling at the many creatures that live in it. One can gaze at a clear night sky, allowing his mind to be completely absorbed by the glory of the stars. Through such intense contemplation, one can attain a meditative state directed towards the Divine.
(Meditation of the Bible p. 6)
a. Private and Public Worship
Worship in Shul
Worship at Home
Symbols in Judaism
Layout of the Shul
c. Food and Fasting
Examples of Worship are:
Kiddush and Meals on Shabbat
Eating in a Succah
Remember: Everything in a Shul is based on something from the Temple
Based on the Menorah,
which was constantly lit
Based on the Alter,
where sacrifices were made.
Declare the belief in one G-d
Say the Shema at Shacharit and Maariv
G-d's instructions to Jews on how to live their lives in order to become closer to G-d.
Includes Mitzvot of: Tefillin, Mezuzah, Education and Tzitzit
Most spiritual point in Tefillah
Say the Amida at Shacharit, Mincha and Maariv
Also known as the Shemona Esrei (18 Blessings)
Is said silently, as it is a personal prayer in which we praise, thank and ask G-d for things.
All of prayer is centered around saying the Amida
Kosher Animals: &
Kosher Birds: Non-Kosher birds are listed in the Torah
Kosher Fish: &
Reasons for Kashrut
“For I am the Lord your God, you shall sanctify yourselves and be holy.”
“So you shall set apart the clean beasts from the unclean beasts ... You shall be holy to Me, for I the Lord am holy.”
2.Respect for Life
“God said: See I give you every seed-bearing plant that is on the earth, and every tree that has seed-bearing fruit; they shall be yours for food.”
“For the life of the flesh is in the blood. Since the blood is the life we are forbidden to eat the blood.”
“You shall not cook a kid in its mother's milk.”
(Shemot 23:19, 34:26, Devarim 14:21)
Day of Atonement for sins between Man and G-d
On Yom Kippur Jews do not: Eat, drink, wear leather shoes, wash, put on creams or have marital relations
To commemorate the assassination of Gedalia ben Achikam who was killed by a fellow Jew. He represented the last Jewish autonomy in the aftermath of the destruction of the Temple. Gedalia had been the governor of Jerusalem.
The sages said:
This teaches us that the death of the righteous is the equivalent to the burning of the House of God, for just as a fast was ordained to commemorate the destruction of the Temple so too was a fast ordained to commemorate the death of Gedalia.
This is to commemorate the day on which Nebuchadnezer, King of Babylon, began the siege of Jerusalem during the time of the First Temple. The siege lasted 3 years.
The fast of the 10th Tevet is like the other fasts which were established as means of mourning the destruction of the Temple and Israel's exile. However, the primary purpose of fasting is not grief and mourning, for the distress felt at the time when these events transpired is sufficient. Rather, the primary purpose of the fasts is to inspire people to repent, to bring us to recall the evil deeds of our ancestors as well as our own -deeds which brought them and bring us great travail. By remembering these events we will repent and act properly, as the verse (Vayikra 26:40) states 'And they shall confess their sins and the sins of their ancestors for the evil they have done to me.'
(Rambam, Hilchot Ta’anit 5)
This is a commemoration of the fast that Esther observed when the Jews gathered to defend themselves against Haman.
Commemorates the breach in the walls of the Second Temple.
Both 1st & 2nd Temples were destroyed on that day.
This day is the saddest day of the Jewish year.
So you shall set apart the clean beasts from the unclean beasts ... You shall be holy to Me, for I the Lord am holy.
Rabbi Eliezer said: Fasting is greater than charity. The reason? It is done with one’s body, while the other is done with one’s money
(Babylonian Talmud Tractate Brachot Page 32b)
The motivation of fasting in the Ancient World, particularly in the Talmudic period, may be summed up under the following head[ing]s:
(a)Fasting for the purpose of atonement
(b)Fasting in case of mourning
(c)Fasting as a ritual for the purpose of purification
(d)Fasting as a means of causing visions and dreams
The Motivation of Fasting in Talmudic Literature by S. Lowy
(Journal of Jewish Studies Vol. IX 1958)