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The Haida

A first nation group

kathy tran

on 12 April 2013

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Transcript of The Haida

Haida By: Kathy Tran 6E Economic Part
of Culture Shelter Religion Art Clothing Introduction -summer was spent hunting/gathering in nearby forests
-hunted for; Black-tailed deer Elk Mountain goat Beaver Bear - were hunters and fishers
-Lived 8,000 years in British Columbia west coast
-live in the Queen of Charlotte islands
-Lived on archipelago- groups of small islands -Haida called the islands Haida Gwaii
-Also found in Alaska, Southern tip of Prince of Whales island
-Population- 30,000 based on number of sites/settlements discovered around Haida Gwaii
-Haida society highly developed because of location easy to thrive Fishing -Became very skilled fishers
-Pacific Ocean main source of food for people
-the men spent most of the day fishing along the coast Pacific Salmon -most important food resource to people
-in fall, easier to catch with nets, harpoons, and traps because salmon would go up the rivers
-catch thousands of fish in small area that can feed a family for a year Other fish they would catch are... -cod -other fish(halibut,smelt) -herring -seaweed -seals-crab and other shellfish -sea otters -turtle
-whales(-sometimes men would hunt for them but dangerous because whales can flip over a canoe)
-calms,oysters,mussels(-women and salves collected them from ocean)
-oil(used lots of fish oil to add flavor to food -used oil from whales, seals, and eulachon, type of smelt -women had special process of squeezing all the oil out of eulachon Hunting Prepare Food -meats/vegetables baked, steamed, or boiled in a cedar box/basket full of water and heated rocks
-fish was either eaten fresh or it was dried and saved for winter
-it was also smoked-hangover fire and slowly dried/became preserved -in summer stored food in boxes of fish oil for winter -made of goat hair, animal furs , bird feathers, leather, wool, and woven strips made of red/yellow cedar bark
-skin woven into skirts , dresses, leggings, and robes -wove roots/reeds into pieces of fabrics and sewed pieces into capes/robes
-woven strips could be woven into different kinds of fabrics-fabrics either soft or dense/waterproof
placed crest figure of raven or Eagle on clothing
-decorations on capes were mountain goat wool
-women responsible for weaving clothing, mats, and bed sheets
-used softened cedar bark strips or cattails with colored grasses to add color
-women wore skirts/capes made of cedar bark
-men painted the hats women wove from split spruce roots with red/black, sometimes blue and green
-men wore large elkskin capes
-warmer weather, men wore very little clothing
-cooler weather, wore long capes of cedar bark
-capes painted/fringed at sides
-materials were collected in the summer months and the dried
-society wore clothes that show their personal wealth and social status Social Part of Culture Haida Games -village has 30 large cedar plank dwellings that held several families
-log houses rectangular and made of red cedar planks or logs
-has a totem pole in front of the house
-entrance is beside totem pole or a circle or hole at the bottom of totem pole
-curved animals into house to represent clan in house
-1 log house=6 fires, 1 fire=share by 2 families to cook
-has smoke hole with plank flap over top
-faced toward ocean for ocean breeze
-chiefs house is bigger and in middle of village
-believed that chief’s house was gift from Raven, stolen from Beaver Constructing the house -rained a lot and the trees grew very big and tall
-huge red cedar let the people make houses from them
-cut trees down with stone axes and floated them to the village
-frame built with cedar logs
-cedar planks attached to logs
-was important to overlap planks so rain wont seek in
-to hold wood together, they used wooden pegs
-loghouses only had a hole for smoke go out and a front door to keep heat in
-they had no windows
-the houses had low roofs so the heat would stay in winter Inside of the House -had simple furniture bunk beds were lined up against wall, above all beds was storage areas/open shelves and below beds was dug 2 feet deep holes to store and cool food
-to separate the family area, they hung cedar mats from the ceiling Transportation -were skilled at navigating area's water ways
- made canoes out of cedar and the canoes were very large/long
-canoes main mean of transporting goods and people up and down the coast
-used for going to events, trading, fishing and hunting, and warfare
-1 canoe can hold 2-50 people and 10,000 pounds of fish at the same time
-sealing canoes used by 2 hunters is 24 feet long
-ocean-going freights/war canoes long as 70 feet
- they also had smaller canoes for single families and shorter day outs Making a Canoe -they cut down a cedar tree and split the log in half without cracking it
-burned/scraped out the middle of half log and fill it with water
-softened the wood for carving with hot rocks in water that made it boil Tools -sledge hammer that was made of stone was used to split wood
-in hunting the Haida used nets, underwater traps, bone and wood hooks, harpoons, and fish lines made of cedar for fishing
-served food on wooden platters and trays -traded with all other tribes in The Northwest Coast
-traded mostly with the Tlingit and Timshian tribes
-Haida traded the strong and beautiful canoes for caribou hides and great weaving of Tlingit
-fought each other most of time for each other’s villages wealth and slaves
-deal made with meeting between clans to set a price
-value of trade good is measured by blankets
major trade item is eulachon oil Trade Political Part of Culture Websites I Used.... www.canadiangeographic.ca http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com/fp_groups/fp_nwc5.html
http://www.sfu.ca/archaeology-old/museum/danielle_longhouse/keepers/games.htm War -were great basketry and woodcarving art(carved mask, totem poles, bentwood boxes, and canoes )
-often face painted and tattooed a highly ranked individual for ceremonies purposes
-made baskets for storage and trade
-hat was important because it kept them protected from the rain
Totem pole
-carving was passed down from generation to generation
Haida totem poles can be form of a house-front pole, memorial pole, and mortuary pole
-totem poles are large carved poles used to display clan crest and social status of the family
-most poles had animals and humans carved into them
-usually painted black, red, and blue, sometimes white and yellow
-took almost all of the village to raise one pole
Bentwood Boxes
-bentwood boxes made from single cedar plank steamed then bent at three corners and pegged together
-used to serve and store food and were also common at all ceremonial feasts
-masks are a important part of ceremonies
-masks in copper is sign of wealth
-had a transformation mask as common theme -believed animals special types of people, more intelligent, and have ability to change into human form
-society divided into 2 groups- Raven and Eagle each group has different traditions
-culture, customs, beliefs, and history passed on orally through stories, songs, and dances in Northwest Coast
-stories about why things occurred(like weather)and some stories are about how they first appeared on land
-stories passed down to generations
-believed surrounded all the time in natural world by supernatural beings-those live beyond Earth world and have powers of sun, moon, or thunders
-spirits were connected to living things
Shamans/Medicine Men only ones who can link between spirit world and natural world
-shaman can be a man or woman, most of the time it is a man
-believed had power to curse sick, ensure there was food, and influence weather through ability to communicate with spirit world
-believed ill person an intervention by spirit world or a loss of person’s soul
-Shamans only people who communicated with spirits and cure the sick
-wore bearskin, aprons, rattles, skin drums, charms, necklaces, and masks
-used rattles to summon powers from spirit world
-went into a trance, communicating with spirits, asking them to cure ill person
Medicine Men
-believed they gain special powers from great super natural beings
-Medicine men with powers dress up in special clothing-usually wore dancing blanket
-assistant beat a drum while medicine men use powers to cure
-believed when people become sick, they are out of balance
-drumming/singing would help bring back balance and get well Shinny-long sticks with a hook at bottom and a wooden ball
-hit wooden ball into other team’s goal
Hoop and Pole-hoop and sticks
-roll a hoop along the ground and throw sticks through center of hoop
Lahal-2 bones that small enough to fit your palm, 1 bone is white and one bone is white with a stripe around center
-1 player holds both bones in each hand and shuffle them, the other players guess which hand has the white one
-guess right hand=1 point guess wrong hand=-1 point player with 6 points first wins Ceremonies Family Pictures -specific roles for men and women
-men responsible for all the hunting, fishing, building, and carving
-women stay close to home/work on land
-women responsible for all chores(cleaned, cooked, and looked after children)
-dug clams/shellfish and collected berries from nearby forests
-pounded and softened cedar bark for weaving and making clothes
-marriage between people in different clans
-men decided to marry a woman and payed an agreed amount to her father before wedding
-after first child born, wife's clan pay husband amount equal to wedding payment after payment women chose whether to stay or leave husband -most important ceremony-potlatch
-big celebration that took more than a year to plan
-ceremony usually when person's change social status(birth, marriage, death)
-potlatch includes feast, singing and costumed dancers, and some poltlatches last as long as 2-3 weeks
-poltlatches a way families show off their wealth to others
-person invited to potlatch received gift related to social rank
-more wealth family gave away, more prestige was bestowed on them
-stage performances with masked dancers that created illusion of death or direct contact with super natural world
Dignity Potlatch
-held if important person had embarrassing moment
-purpose was to offset humiliation person suffered -sometimes had war against other Northwest coast groups for revenge or items of wealth, especially slaves
-Haida slaves caught in war or children of people been caught
- other first nation groups feared haida
-successful warriors because they had excellent seaman ship skills
-forts very well defended
-defended themselves by wearing armor, wooden helmets, breast plates, war coat made of thick sea lion hides or several layers of elkskin
-used bows and arrows, spears, and war daggers
-full wars often avoided because in their culture, most 'wrongs' could be righted by giving gifts eulachon drying
eulachon war
mask transformation mask Social Structure/
Leadership -society ruled by wealth, wealthiest family had the most power
-oldest/highest ranking person is Chief of family
-Chiefs responsible for disturbing wealth to the people
-people who had higher social status received more
-Chief of most powerful family also village chief
-Chief displays family crest on village totem poles
-divided into 2 clans- Raven and Eagles Food Food
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