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AP GoPo - The Media
Transcript of AP GoPo - The Media
History of the Media
New Media vs. Old Media:
What makes up both?
And what is most influential?
Structure of the Media
Joint Operating Agreement-
ex. when multiple newspapers in one city are owned by the same company
Newspapers are FAR less competitive than radio or TV.
US- much more localized and numerous
Europe- more national and limited
Do members of the media have a distinct political attitude?
What are the views of the members of the nat'l media?
Public officials have a love-hate relationship with the media:
they need the media to strengthen their policies and careers,
but fear the media due to its ability to destroy, criticize, expose, etc.
What has made this relationship worse over the past few decades?
Our press has much more freedom than almost every other country.
Private ownership of the media has contributed to these freedoms.
Two limits on freedom:
the need to make money
bias of the employees
Political History of the Media:
During the foundation of the country, and through the Jacksonian period, the press was mostly controlled by parties.
Many journalists were even paid by the gov't
The relatively lower population made this possible
Technological innovations allow companies to reach the growing population. What advances?
Now businessmen can make a lot of money by selling newspapers.
Who were the big 1800s guys that dictated public opinion through their newspapers?
This helps create a similar political culture across the country.
Magazines of Opinion:
response to Yellow Journalism
ex. McClure's, Harper's, Atlantic Monthly, the Nation.
increased popularity of individual writers
Radio first, then TV
How is this better for politicians?
Rise of big three networks (NBC, CBS, ABC)
then cable news (CNN, Fox News, MSNBC)
changing everything at such a quick space we really don't know what the effect is.
nat'l papers and mags are influential b/c:
they make a lot of copies
political elites follow them
radio and TV follow off of them
editors are more educated than local ones
THE MEDIA AS A:
media can decide what issues are important
turning politics into a contest, or race
media will keep a close eye on important figures and issues
Rules for the Media
It is much harder in the US to find the press guilty of libel, incitement, being obscene, etc.
Confidentiality of sources is usually protected, except for certain situations
print media is hardly regulated, unlike TV and radio
TV and radio are licensed by the FCC
Both have been deregulated, with radio more
bigger owning companies
there still is an EQUAL TIME RULE that says stations have to sell ad time fairly
Presidential candidates always use a lot of TV
Senate and House not as much, since their constituency borders are smaller.
The market you are in dictates TV ad price, who sees it, etc.
Does that attitude affect what they write or say?
Do the beliefs of the nat'l media affect how they report the news?
Does what they write or say affect what citizens believe?
Does what the media write or say influence what their readers and viewers think?
regularly covered news events
public stories that aren't normally covered by the press
stories that are often secret to the public
when members of the public only pay attention to news stories that they already agree with
Gov't & the News
The pres is under extreme surveillance by the media.
No other country's leader is reported on as much as ours.
Congress receives less attention
but CSPAN puts them on TV 24/7
Why are there leaks in the gov't?
there is a high amount of competition w/in the gov't itself
the press distrusts elected officials, so they will look for the "real" story
Adversarial Press- the press works against the gov't
This leads to sensationalism