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project scope management
Transcript of project scope management
Project Management Success
These are largely determined by the quality of your processes, and your ability to manage
Project and Product Scope.
~This process is concerned with assessing, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs to meet project objectives.
The following are examples of project stakeholders:
• Project Manager
• Project Team Members
• Senior Management
• Project Customer
• Resource Managers
• Line Managers
• Product User Group
• Project Testers
What is a Scope?
Scope involves getting information required to start a project, and the features the product would have that would meet its stakeholders requirements. WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE: is a deliverable-oriented decomposition of a project into smaller components. A work breakdown structure element may be a product, data, service, or any combination thereof. A WBS also provides the necessary framework for detailed cost estimating and control along with providing guidance for schedule development and control.
What is Project Scope Management
~Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project
includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully.
In the project context, the term “scope” may refer to:
~refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.
~ is a product produced as part of a project, such as hardware or software, planning documents, or meeting minutes.
Project VS Product Scope
Project Scope Product Scope
Work done to deliver Product with specified features & functions
Features & functions characterizing a product or service
Good Scope Starts with Good Requirements.
How Do I Get the Requirements Right?
Some questions to ask:
1. What is the Problem? (symptoms)
2. What is the (REAL) Problem? (core)
3. Where does the problem
come from? (source and cause)
3. 4. Whose problem is it?
Internal Stakeholders - People/orgs directly involved
Direct Stakeholders - People/orgs directly affected by Penumbra
(“Customer’s Customer”) - People/orgs peripherally affected
5. (Why) Do we really care to solve it?
(bottom line - business case)
Joint Requirements Definition Meeting
• Workshop approach
• Follow-up to a feasibility study
Statement of Work (SOW), or
Statement of Requirements (SOR)
Requirements Kick-Off Meeting
• Involve all stakeholders (if possible)
• Driven by brainstorming checklist
• Generally done one-on-one
• Checklist approach
• Used to get specific user requirements
• Small group dynamics
• Used to examine a particular area in depth
• Often uses storyboarding techniques or prototypes
These techniques usually lead to a long list of requirements that need prioritization.
• Considerations When Building a Work Brea
There are some aspects of the WBS development to consider before you start, which include:
• As you set up your project WBS, think about how you will want to use it later in the project. For instance, pay close attention to the indents in your WBS because these eventually end up being the indent structure in your Gantt schedule.
• The Building Process kdown Structure
Not only do you need the project scope to create your WBS, you need the input from the project managers and team leaders. Generally, the WBS-building process finds all these people in a room with plenty of white boards and markers, or pads of paper and sticky notes.
Tips for Building a Work Breakdown Structure:
• WBS Basics
On the most basic level, you decompose the project scope in order to create the work breakdown structure. This takes time in beginning, but ultimately it affords the project manager better control of costs and deadlines, thus saving time. When you use the decomposition process to create your WBS, you are less prone to adding items that are outside of the project scope
• A WBS is Not a To Do List
At the beginning of a project, the WBS can serve as a coordinating medium to secure buy-in from stakeholders, supervisors and team members. As the project progresses, the WBS can give visibility to important efforts and foster clear ownership by managers and supervisors. At project completion, the WBS can provide data for performance measurement. That’s more than a To Do list can do.
• Some WBS Resources Generating a WBS from Microsoft Project
If your project has already been entered in MS Project, you may want to consider a third-party add-on for MS Project from Critical Tools (http://www.criticaltools.com). Their WBS Chart Pro add-on converts a Gantt chart task list with indents into a standard WBS graphic. Military Standard for WBS - For comprehensive instructions on how to build a work breakdown structure, check out the complete military standard for work breakdown structures on the EverySpec website (http://www.everyspec.com) - just search for Work Breakdown Structures.
There are essentially two ways to create a Work Breakdown Structure - the top-down or the bottom-up approach.
• The top-down approach, in my opinion, generates a complete and more accurate WBS. In this approach, the WBS is derived by decomposing the overall project into sub-projects or lower-level tasks. This decomposition is based on general project characteristics and not on detailed design elements. The decomposition continues until the tasks or work units reach a level where they can be accurately defined and estimated.
• The bottom-up approach on the other hand is more akin to a brain-storming exercise where team members are asked to make a list of low-level tasks needed to complete the project. In many instances this can turn quite chaotic if the tasks identified by the team are not all at the same level. It can also be time consuming to ensure that all tasks at a given level have been completely identified. This approach is resource intensive since it assumes that all members of the team have sufficient domain knowledge and a complete understanding of the project requirements in order to be able to identify and integrate tasks at different levels.
WBS DICTIONARY: The WBS dictionary includes entries for each WBS component that briefly defines the scope or statement of the work, defines deliverables, contains a list of associated activities, and provides a list of recognized milestones to gage progress. The Work Breakdown Structure Dictionary is an essential information resource for project management. It should be consulted before commencing any work component in order to insure that proper standards, procedures, and quality control measures are being followed.
What is scope baseline Scope baseline is the approved project scope and used during scope change management to determine and prevent scope creep. Scope baseline primarily comprises of The project scope statement, work breakdown structure and WBS dictionary. PROJECT SCOPE STATEMENT: includes the product scope description and the project deliverable, and it also define the product user acceptance criteria. WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE: defines each deliverable and further decomposes in deliverable into smaller work packages. WBS DICTIONARY: contains the actual detailed description of the work required, and is often a very detailed and technical description of each work package.
Advice for Creating WBS
and WBS Dictionary
A unit of work should appear in only one place in the WBS.
The work content of a WBS item is the sum of the WBS items below it.
A WBS item is the responsibility of only one individual, even though many people may be working on it.
The WBS must be consistent with the way in which work is actually going to be performed.
Project team members should be involved in developing the WBS to ensure consistency and buy-in.
Each WBS item must be documented in a WBS dictionary.
The WBS must be a flexible tool.
It is very difficult to create a good scope statement and WBS for a project.
It is even more difficult to verify project scope and minimize scope changes.
Many IT projects suffer from scope creep and poor scope verification.
Scope control involves controlling changes to the project scope.
Suggestions for Improving User
Develop a good project selection process and insist that sponsors are from the user organization.
Place users on the project team in important roles.
Hold regular meetings with defined agendas, and have users sign off on key deliverables presented at meetings.
Deliver something to users and sponsors on a regular basis.
Don’t promise to deliver when you know you can’t.
Co-locate users with developers.
Suggestions for Reducing Incomplete and Changing Requirements
Develop and follow a requirements management process.
Use techniques such as prototyping, use case modeling, and JAD to get more user involvement.
Put requirements in writing and keep them current.
Create a requirements management database for documenting and controlling requirements.
Conduct adequate testing throughout the project life cycle.
Review changes from a systems perspective.
Emphasize completion dates to help focus on what’s most important.
Allocate resources specifically for handling change requests and enhancements (as NWA did with ResNet).
Using Software to Assist in Project Scope Management
Word-processing software helps create scope-related documents.
Spreadsheets help perform financial calculations and weighed scoring models, and help develop charts and graphs.
Communication software, such as e-mail and the Web, helps clarify and communicate scope information.
Project management software helps create a WBS, the basis for tasks on a Gantt chart.
Specialized software is available to assist in project scope management.