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Transcript of Middle Ages
middle ages Middle Ages The Age of Charlemagne •
• -The rules and customs of being a knight (gentlemanly).
-Includes politeness, generosity, valor, loyalty, and dexterity in arms.
-Respect for ladies and maidens.
-The word evolved from terms such as chevalier (French), caballero (Spanish), and cavaliere (Italian), all meaning a warrior who fought on horseback. Chivalry Feudalism -Had control over education.
oFrench ruler Charlemagne turned to the Catholic Church as the source of education.
-Churches had to provide public education to every boy that was willing to learn.
-Controlled law making and book publication.
-Most art and architecture had a direct relationship with the Christianity.
-Monks (men) and nuns (women) were devoted to the church.
-Monks had to hand copy books.
oThe Bible was the most copied book.
-All life in Europe was centered around the church.
-The church was rich because of taxes.
oThe taxes were called tithes.
-The king had little power over the church.
-The church also owned a lot of the land.
oRoughly 30% to 60% of England was owned by the church. The Power of the Church The Crusades -Trade grew.
oTrade was based in towns for peasants.
oFestivals also began on religious holidays.
-People began using horsepower because horses were more efficient.
oOxen were cheaper but not as strong.
-Three field system – two fields were use and one was not used so it could get more nutrients.
-Population in Europe drastically increased.
-Banks began for borrowing money and for currency exchange.
-Muslim technology began getting intertwined with Christian technology.
-Universities and scholars began in Europe Changes in Medival Society
(Commercial Revolution) Magna Carta
•Issued in 1215
•Required King John of England to accept that no “freeman” could be disciplined
unless it is through the law of the land (a right which still stands today)
•Forced the king assent the “common counsel of our realm”
•Representative body drawn from three ‘estates’
•Made society into three parts: 1st Estate was negotiated by the clergy,
2nd of the nobility, and the 3rd—everyone else.
•3rd was the biggest out of the other 2
•Still used in modern day France
• The Development of England and France (Magna Carta and the Estates General) The Hundred Years' War The Plague t - System began about 900AD and lasted to about 1500AD.
- The system was basically land for service.
- Fiefs are land granted to a vassal, or person below the person granting the fief.
o Before a fief could be given to someone, they had to be made a vassal in a symbolic ceremony called a commendation ceremony.
- Feudalism usually emerged as a result of the decentralization of an empire, both in Europe with the Carolingian Empire and in Japan with the Japanese empire. • Born A.D 742 to A.D 814
• “King of the Franks”
• Founded Carolingian Empire
• Took power in A.D 768 (“Became King of Franks”) following his father’s death
• Expanded Frankish Territory
• Removed Lombard power in Italy, and then leading an invasion into Muslim Occupied Spain.
• Reached highest power when crowned by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day, 800, (“Father of Europe”)
• extended Frankish kingdom into Spain and Central Europe
• wanted to evoke fame of the Roman Empire
• Goal was to bond all Germanic Tribes into one gigantic Christian Empire
• Charlemagne’s empire fell soon after his death • Sources: http://www.slideshare.net/juliahornaday/england-and-france-develop-1461457
http://faculty.history.wisc.edu/sommerville/123/123%2013%20Society.htm Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
• Started when Phillip VI of France attempted to confiscate English Territories in the duchy of Aquitaine.
• Many wars were won by the English this is thanks to a new method of warfare which involved the combination of forced between longbow men with dismounted men-at-arms.
• Siege of Orleans gave French a greater advantage and soon after that the English stopped winning battles
• Finished on the date of 1453 when the French displaced the English from the region (excluding Calais) here are some Battles fought during these wars here is an example of the estate generals this is a video about the preservation of the magna carta • Also known as the Black Death
• Started in 1328 and ended in 1351
• Spread by fleas on rodents
• 1/3 of population dead – 200 million people!!!!!
• 7500 dead each day and all this happened in 2 ruthless years (for Europe).
• Important on European history because it made people
question the church and its beliefs so therefore, its power declined.
•The song “Ring around the Rosy” is about the Black Death directly
•In fifty years in China—35 million people died (125mil. to 90mil.) • First Crusade (1096-1099)
• Pope Urban II asked for a crusade to help the Byzantines.
• Also wanted to free Jerusalem
• Seized Jerusalem on July 15, 1099
• Fighting still occurred in Asia minor
• Byzantines not happy with Franks for not returning old territory that belonged to Byzantium.
• Franks eventually won the series of battles and expanded their territory. The First Crusade •Second Crusade (1147-1149)
•Pope Eugenius III prepared a crusade towards Louis IV of France, and later on Conrad III of Germany were convinced to join the war.
•1147-fighting broke out between, France and Germany, and Damascus, a Muslim city (which in fact was a Christian ally until the time).
•Christians failed to win any major battles, and later on the main enemy of the crusaders named Nur-ad-Din captured Damascus. The Second Crusade •Third Crusade (1189-1192)
•After the news of a defeat at the Battle of Hattin help was sent by English ruler Henry II and Phillip II of France.
•France and the English departure was delayed but the Germans instantaneously went to battle, but their efforts vanished upon the death of Frederick I.
•Henry II died before the departure
•Richard (Henry’s Son) and Phillip II still went to the holy land.
•Attacked Acre and surrendered later on
•Phillip returned to the west after Baldwin V’s death but Richard I still tried to take over Jerusalem.
•Went on to seize Arsuf and Jaffa
•Eventually left to return to England on October 9, 1192 The Third Crusade •Fourth Crusade (1202- 1204)
•1198, another crusade was called
•Europeans took control of Zara for more men
•1203 the Crusaders took control of Constantinople and put Alexius IV on the throne.
•Late 1204 a man named Murzuphlus took control of the throne and named himself Alexius V.
•Later the Crusader took over Constantinople and on this occasion plundering it as well.
•1261 Constantinople was captured and this ended the Latin Empire. The Fourth Crusade http://teachnet.eu/tobrien/about/revolutions/the-french-revolution/estates-general/ http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/archive/hundredyearswar.cfm historyonthenet.com fidnet.com Thank You for watching