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Politics & Power: Controversy in the Olympics
Transcript of Politics & Power: Controversy in the Olympics
Relocation of citizens
Calls for boycotts by nations and human rights groups
Conclusion: not much effect
2008 Beijing Olympics
Nov. 1998: letter concerning university tuition
Marc Hoddler, Swiss IOC member, calls for further investigation which reveals several bribe tactics used by SLOC.
Many members of IOC are expelled or resigned in response.
IOC goes through reform, producing the IOC Code of Ethics in 1999.
2002 Salt Lake City Olympics
Russia issues vague law prohibiting homosexual propaganda, especially to minors.
Human rights groups call for boycotts and urge the IOC to alter the Olympic location.
Opening day of the games 4 protestors arrested.
Some nation leaders, including President Obama, did not attend the opening ceremony.
2014 Sochi Games
1936 Berlin Summer Olympics:
~The 1936 olympic were controversial not only because Hitler used the games to advance the Nazi cause, but also because of African American star Jesse Owens.
- Hitlers theory was that blonde, blue eyed, pale skinned athletes would win most of the medals.
-Owens set records such as, 100 meter dash, 200 meter dash, long jump, and also broke the 400 meter relay race.
1988 Olympics: Seoul
Attack on Nancy Kerrigan
Two died during bombing attack.
Robert Rudolph Sentenced to life in prison
Atlanta: Centennial Bombing
1956 Melbourne Summer Games: Blood in the water
-Water polo match between Russia and Hungary became one of the famous matches in polo history.
-Semifinals players were punching and kicking each other, resulting in bloodying the water.
-Russian Player head butted or punched Hungarian player in the right eye, leading to the iconic photo.
-In 2006, a documentary was made titled " Freedoms Fury" from the famous match.
1968 Mexico Summer Olympics:
-South Africa was banned in 1964 for apartheid policies, was re-admitted then banned again.
-Forty nine People died during student riots in Mexico City.
-Tommie Smith & John Carlos came in first in the 1968 men's race created greater controversy.
-Black activists in the U.S. proposed an olympic boycott.
- Smith and Carlos showed their support during the black power movement's racial campaign during the medal ceremony by raising a black gloved fist during the national anthem.
- Both were suspended from the U.S. team & evicted from the Olympic Village.
1972 Munich Olympics
Black September, a terrorist group, kills two israeli coaches and takes nine Israelis hostage.
Black September was associated with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).
There was previous conflict between the PLO and Israel.
The terrorists demanded that 200 arab prisoners before they release the hostages
The Beginning of the Olympics
Established in 776 B.C.
Started in Olympia, Greece
Held every four years
Consisted of Athletic and religious festivals
The Games included Racing and Strength Competitions. "
What do they symbolize?
Controversy recorded since start of the Olympics
German authorities attempted to rescue the nine hostages
The attempt failed and all 9 hostages were killed
Ben Johnson broke world record in the 100-meter dash. The Canadian was heralded as a national hero and he gained popular media attention winning many lucrative advertising contracts.
Three days after winning, Johnson was stripped of his gold medal and world record. He could never compete on behalf of Canada again.
Eupholus of Thessaly
Competed in 388 B.C.
Bribed three boxers to intentionally lose
Money was used to create the first "zane"
1980 Moscow Boycott
The first olympics to be hosted in a communist country
The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979
The U.S. boycotted the olympics as a way to show disapproval over the invasion
Only 80 countries showed up to the Olympics
Roman Emperor Nero (A.D. 67)
Bribed Olympic officials to postpone the game
Bribed to receive Olympic laurels
His name was removed from the victor list
The athletes felt insulted because they were used as "political pawns."
Many athletes had been training for and lost their only chance to be in the Olympics.
Modern Olympic Controversies
Established in 1896
Served to help share mutual interest and find commonality in difference
Planned by International Olympic Committee
1904 St. Louis Summer Olympics
The Friendship Games
The Soviet Union decided not to attend the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics in response to the 1980 boycott
Instead, they decided to host friendship games
Officially, The Soviet Union denied that the games were a "counter-olympic event"
However, they were referred to as the alternative olympics by the communist countries that attended
Frederick Lorz, an American marathon runner, was disqualified for cheating by dropping out of the race after nine miles and riding a car for several miles, then running the rest of the race to the finish
1908 London Summer Olympics
Dorando Pietri, an Italian athlete, collapsed during a marathon after taking a wrong turn. Two official helped him to the finish line, and a complaint from another competitor caused his disqualification.
John Carpenter and William Robins
Carpenter and Robbins, two American Runners, were interrupted during their victory race by two British judges invading the track and declaring a foul. A rerun was called, but they refused to participate as a form of protest.
Ralph Rose, an American shot-putter, refused to dip the American flag before King Edward during the opening ceremony. Since then, American flag bearers do not dip the flag during open ceremony.
1912 Stockholm Summer Olympics
Jim Thorpe, an American athlete,
claimed the world record for the decathlon and also won medals in high jump and long jump. The International Olympic Committee removed his name from the record book and his medals because he had been paid to play minor league baseball, considering him a professional athlete. His name was restored in the record book thirty years after his death.
1994 Winter Olympics: Tonya Harding
"The Olympics also serve as a venue in which states protest the actions of other states and have historically provided a means for the international community to punish or coerce states and other actors.”
-Cottrell, Patrick and Nelson, Travis