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Transcript of sustainable design
ii. Passive Solar Heating
iii. Passive Cooling
iv. Water and Storm water Runoff
vi. Air Quality A. SURROUNDING/ENVELOPE
1. Site analysis For enough luminance the surrounding of the construction site should be adequate. For instance the location of adjacent buildings, trees, hills, and others can block the access of sun light. i. Day Lighting The land forms, trees, buildings can block the radiation. The most important time is the coldest time of the year because only using passive solar heating cannot be enough for thermal comfort. ii. Passive Solar Heating The cross ventilation is the most popular one. For successful cross ventilation velocity of the wind and wind speed and direction should be known. Also again the surrounding of the construction site will affect the wind. iv. Water and Storm Water Runoff Generally water needs do not meet from the site resources. For that rain fall rate and patterns should be known. 2. Insulation Materials It is needed for climate control. Many insulation materials can contain polluting and non-biodegradable substances. However it is needed for sustainable design. The materials should be decided consciously.
i. Plastic foam board (rigid board) insulation
ii. Cellulose insulation
iii. Mineral wool
iv. Cotton insulation
v. Radiant barriers (bubble-backed, foil-faced paperboard sheeting)
vi. Perlite i. Plastic foam board (rigid board) insulation ii. Cellulose insulation Made from 75-85% recycled newsprint. It contains non-toxic chemicals. Yet there are no significant indoor air quality issues about it if it is properly installed. There are potential risks because of breathing dust during the application. iii. Mineral wool Generally used for fire protection. According to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency this material is hazardous. iii. Passive Cooling For acoustics the site visit is needed. Sound sources can be determined by this way. v. Acoustics When the material made from molded expanded polystyrene-EPS and extruded expanded polystyrene-XPS(foamboard) that material can contain volatile organic compounds which is not biodegradable. Also these materials fireproofing chemicals are not good for health. " iv. Cotton insulation Made from recycled denim. Some products use 85% recycled fiber saturated with a borate flame retardant. v. Radiant barriers (Bubble-backed, foil faced polyethylene foam, foil-faced paperboard sheeting, foil faced OSB)
These are thin, reflective foil sheets which reduce flow of heat by radiant transfer. They are effective when the reflective surface faces the airspace. vi. Perlite Non-flammable, lightweight and do not show reaction. According to Walter Grondzik ‘Perlite generates very little pollution during manufacturing and poses a minor threat for dust irritation during installation. Its main drawback is its limited range of applications due to its fluid character.’ 3. Straw-bale Construction It is good for climate control, energy efficient and resource efficient. Straw is renewable agricultural waste product. It is inexpensive and simple to work with. For stability it is used with wood, metal or concrete framing. It is good for passive heating and cooling. When it is thickness is 400 mm or greater, that becomes sustainable massive envelope. Also it is efficient as a sound barrier. Although it is for dry climates, it can be used in any area where straw is founded. Also when it is well constructed, it has fire resistance higher than typical wood frame building. Between two surfaces there is an insulating material. They are generally composed of expanded polystyrene (EPS) as an insulation material and adhesive-attached oriented-strand board (OBS) for the skins. Also for insulation material extruded polystyrene (XPS), polyurethane, polyisocyanurate, and straw can be used as an alternative. This product has good overall thermal performance when we compare it with stick-frame construction because studs are reason for thermal bridging. This materials structural strength is good. Another benefit is resource efficiency. Wood is from tree farms and EPS is produced without ozone-damaging. Its usage is also simple because of making use of prefabrication. Skin and insulation material can vary and dimensions also can vary. From the perspective of recycling EPS and polyurethane are recyclable. However foam cannot be recycled. (Morley, Michael, Building with Structural Insulated Panels) 4. Structural insulated panels It can be made from glass or plastic. It is important because it affect the shape of the design by the numbers of openings, size and locations. Glazing is used for;
(1) its architectural appearance
(3) direct solar radiation
(5) Airflow if it is operable 5. Glazing Glass Types Distance between glasses increases; radiation heat transfer decreases, conduction increases. Optimum distance for double glazing is 12mm
* Double glazing: Heat absorbing glasses are not coated glasses. The absorbing quality is added during manufacture. Low-E: Low emissivity coated glass. It reflects the heat towards the direction it comes from. These glasses are not very functional by themselves but if it is used together with an ordinary glass they are very useful. * Low-E and Heat absorbing glasses: Glass Types In the summer the glass reflects light and heat but the glass gets cold. This is good. However in the winter the glass again reflects light and heat but the glass gets cold. This is not good. The coating makes a gloomy interior, so that the interior might need more artificial lighting. Also its surface is irregular so it has a distorted view of the environment. *Reflecting glass: Oslo Opera House Glass Types When the dominance climate is winter; ordinary glass facing the outside and the heat absorbing glass is at the inside it works well. When the dominance climate is summer; the heat absorbing glass should be at the outside and the ordinary glass is at the inside to be useful. (Flynn, J.E. Architectural Interior Systems) *Combination of special glasses with clear ordinary glass: 6. Double Envelope Consists of an outer façade, an intermediate space and an inner façade. The outer façade provides weather protection and acoustic isolation. The intermediate space is used as a buffer for thermal. Inner façade provides thermal barrier when it is double glazing. It is beneficial for natural ventilation, day lighting, passive heating and cooling. Unfortunately double envelope façade is very complex system as a result it may not work properly. 7. Green Roofs
Extensive green roofs have a shallow soil base when compared to intensive. That makes them lighter, less expensive. Plant diversity is limited; generally grass and herbs are used. It provides good natural view to adjacent buildings. These roofs can be sloped up to 35o . Yet after 20o baffle systems are required for preventing soil slump. A drainage system is needed for excess rain water and a protective barrier for roof membrane. The reason is the roots of the plants can damage the membrane. Collects the rain water and increase the thermal resistance of the roof. There are two types of green roofs; extensive and intensive. 7. Green Roofs Intensive green roof has a deeper soil base than extensive. Plant diversity is not limited. Intensive green roof will be much heavier than extensive so sustainable building structure is needed. It is applicable only on flat roofs. Intensive green roofs are more energy efficient than extensive green roofs. Also their roof membranes more protected and last longer. 7. Green Roofs The layers of a green roof are in general; insulation will be placed on top of the roof. Above it, there will be waterproof membrane, a root barrier, a drainable layer, a filter membrane and soil base. Chicago City Hall Garage Roof in Mount Baker It is a numerical ratio used to describe the relationship between indoor and outdoor daylight illuminances. Sky conditions are always changing so illuminance is variable throughout a typical day/month/year. So we use ratio for much more stable value.
The daylight factor affects the design;
-Size of openings (windows, skylights)
-Location of openings (sidelighting, toplighting)
-Room geometry(height, width and depth)
-Reflectances of room surfaces B. LIGHTING
1. Daylight Factor The following user responses to daylight factors have been suggested;
DF < 2%, room will seem gloomy. Electric lighting will be required for most of the daylight hours.
2% < DF < 5%, room will feel that it is daylight, but still electric
lighting may be needed.
DF > 5%, room will feel daylight. Electric lighting may not be needed during daylight hours. 1. Daylight Factor 2. Daylight Zoning It is the process of grouping spaces according to required illuminance. Function of the room is important, what kind of activities taken place in. Usage schedule is second concern. Last one is location and orientation. The location of a space related to daylight source for instance next to an exterior door or within an interior atrium. McGraw-Hill Construction 3. Top Lighting Top lighting allows not only day light but also radiation. So it has to be controlled. Top lighting is an ideal strategy under overcast sky conditions because overcast skies have greater luminance at the zenith (overhead) than at the horizon. Top lighting is usually coordinated with electric lighting systems easily. 4. Sidelighting: It is useful when it is clear, sunny day. Sidelighting and highwindow openings provide deep penetration of light. High reflectance for reflected ground light and low reflectance floor to avoid glare. For the uniform illumination, the area of window openings should be equal to 1/4th of the floor area. 5. Light Shelves: By reflection it directs the daylight to the ceiling. Diffused light is much more homogeneous. The shelves can be located both inside and outside. 6. Internal Reflectances: By the help of two primary surface characteristics space can use the light. Color and texture. Color determines the reflection or absorption. Dark colored surfaces absorb the light. Texture determines the reflection style of the light. (diffused, reflected) In House Design Rayuela Restaurant Lower East Side NYC Tubelite Accentuate Daylighting Design lightpublic.com 7. Shading Devices: Vertical louvers are ideal for east or west facades. C. HEATING
1. Direct Gain 2. Indirect Gain It is a passive solar heating system. Heating effect occurs as natural radiation (conduction and convection) 2. Indirect Gain For south façade horizontal eaves are needed. Solar Shading Device - GHD’s Doha office AIG Office in Nagasaki, Japon Generally from south facing glazing solar radiation enters during the heating season. Then that heat absorbed by properly sized storage mass.
During the cooling season, solar radiation can be blocked by shading devices. There are 3 types of indirect gain passive solar heating systems:
-Thermal storage walls using masonry: Also called Trombe wall is a south facing glazed wall with a storage medium such as heavy masonry or water located behind the glass. Solar radiation passes through the glass then storage element absorbs it.
-Thermal storage walls using water: also called water wall enable heat transfer to the interior
-Thermal storage roofs: is similar in concept to thermal storage wall, but in this case storage mass is located on the roof. That thermal mass can be masonry, water in bags or shallow pond of water. 3. Isolated Gain: Isolated Gain system is a passive solar heating. It collects and stores the heat. That room is separated thermally from the other parts of the building. It can be considered as greenhouse attached to the building. In order to make sunspace floors and walls should be made from masonry or contain water tubes, barrels. 4. Active Solar Thermal Energy Systems: Energy gained from the sun used for domestic water heating, pool heating, preheating of ventilation air and space heating. Yet the most common is domestic water heating. This system composes of collector, a circulation system that moves a fluid (water or air) from the collectors to storage, a storage tank and control system. A backup heating system is typically included. 4. Active Solar Thermal Energy Systems: 4. Active Solar Thermal Energy Systems: 4. Active Solar Thermal Energy Systems: There 4 types of solar collectors.
Batch collectors: mounted on the top of the roof or on the ground in a sunny location. Direct and thermosiphon systems work with batch collectors. new-learn.info There are 4 types of active solar thermal energy systems. *Thermosiphon systems:
The collector heats water, so it rises by convection to a storage tank. Pumping is not required but fluid movement and heat transfer are related to the temperature of the fluid.
This system works well at climates with good solar radiation resources and little change of low outdoor air temperatures. *Direct circulation systems: pump water from storage tank to collectors during the adequate hours for solar radiation.
*Indirect circulation systems: there is always water in the system but glycol based solutions are commonly used for freeze protection.
*Air-water systems: heat air. A fan moves heated air through an air to water heat exchanger. They are not as efficient as water systems. Solar heated air can also directly heat a space by the help of rock bed storage bin.
Flat plate collectors: usually located on the top of the building. Tubes run through these black panels. These palates absorb solar radiation and heat, which transferred to the tubes. By the help of gravity or pump water moves. It works with direct, indirect, and thermosiphon systems. Fakro 2012 4. Active Solar Thermal Energy Systems:
Transpired collectors: are south facing exterior wall covered by a dark sheet metal collector. The metal heats outdoor air, which is drawn into the building through perforations in the collector. 5. Ground Source Heat Pumps: Ground Source Heat Pumps can heat a building in winter and cool it in summer by using the mass of the earth. Tubes have to be under the frost line. Evacuated tube collectors: works with indirect circulation system.
This system contains parallel rows of transparent glass tubes. The flow of cooler outdoor air through the space. It is related to the temperature difference between outdoor air and indoor air. It works only the outdoor air is 1.7oC cooler than indoor air. Wind velocity is also important wind velocity should be enough. D. COOLING
1. Cross Ventilation: www.mech.hku.hk 2. Stack Ventilation It relies on two basic principles;
-As air warms, it rises because of less density.
-Cooler air replaces the warm air.
Again temperature difference should be 1.7oC . When the height of the stack is increased, the potential of vertical air layers related with temperature also increased. 3. Evaporative Cool Towers: It can be assumed as a reversed chimney. Warm dry air enters the top of a cool tower, passes through moist pads and lands on the base of the tower. This air is cooler and humid. They best work under dry, hot conditions. 4. Night Ventilation of Thermal Mass: During the day heat is absorbed by interior mass. At night that heat is released into cool outdoor. Air circulated through the space. The temperature difference between day and night should be 11oC. Power Plants Technology Sustainability Workshop 5. Earth Cooling Tubes Cool tubes are used to cool a space by bringing outdoor air into the inside. The air is cooled while it flows through the underground tubes. E. ENERGY PRODUCTION
Because of plug loads small on-site power generating systems are needed. 2. WIND TURBINES Produce electrical energy from the wind which is renewable.
Wind turbines change the KE of the wind into electric energy. It is almost same with the hydroelectric generators. Small wind electric system includes the blades, a tail, a generator, a tower, electrical installation, batteries, and controllers. 3. Microhydro Turbines: It uses the KE of moving water. In order not to damage natural habitat some water is taken from the flowing water. Tube is used for creating KE from stored water. Works as the green roofs the depth of the soil have to be 1.8m 6. Earth Sheltering Iceland Keldur Earth Cover This system product electricity through the direct solar radiation.
A photovoltaic (PV) cell provides direct current (DC) output. This direct current output can be used directly or stored in a battery system, or converted into alternating current which is the same as local electric current. 1. Photovoltaics Re-charge Plus 4. Hydrogen Fuel Cells Produce energy as a result of electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. It consists of three parts; an anode side, a cathode side and membrane that divides the two. As a result of the reaction electricity, heat and water composed. F. WATER and WASTE
1. Composting Toilets: They also called biological toilets, dry toilets or waterless toilets. Human evacuation, paper products, food wastes, and other carbon based materials collected and by some chemical reactions it is converted into soil like product. That product can be used as a fertilizer for non-edible agricultural crops. Grey water systems are the most well-known example of this approach. Grey water consists of waste water from lavatories, showers, washing machines, and plumbing fixtures. Waste water containing food and human wastes is called black water. tlc.howstuffworks.com 2. Water Reuse/Recycling www.environment.delhigovt.nic.in 3. Water Catchment Systems Water is collected for gardening and other usages.
There are two commonly used scales of rainwater collecting systems:
-Smaller systems that collect roof runoff for domestic uses
-Larger systems that use land forms as catchment areas to provide water for agriculture. www.wonderlandinc.net Thank You!