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the earth

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Trisha Gunawardene

on 2 September 2013

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Transcript of the earth

The formation
Just how was the earth formed?
There are many beliefs as to how the earth was formed but this is how the scientists summarize it:
1)i. The solar system was just a cloud of dust swirling around.
ii. Slowly the particles stuck together to form a massive spinning disk.
2) Whilst the particles were rotating in a circular motion with great speed, the particles separated themselves into rings.
3) The center became known as the SUN, and with the help of gravity the rings were fused together
4) This created planetesimals and planetoids, bumping into each other made them bigger
5) They cooled down to form the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus and Pluto.
the earth was formed when the light particles moved towards the outer layer and the dense particles moved inwards.
this created the crust and the core, the mantle was the big gap dividing the crust and the core ( it takes up 2/3 of the earth's structure.).
The formation of the earth occurred only after the Sun was formed.
The Earth
Our home...
The pressure and heat from decaying radioactive elements as well as the impact of massive clashes in the universe caused the earth to be molten.
Carbon and iron played a very significant role in the birth of young earth.
Eventually it cooled down materializing the Crust...
But the molten layers that remained became the mantle and the core.
The currents of magma underneath the crust caused volcanic eruption to take place, releasing gases.
This indicated the start of the water cycle and the beginning of the atmosphere.
the earth is still changing...
the structure of the earth is the next topic
The Structure
The earth has four main layers
The crust
the mantle
the outer core
and lastly
the inner core
An image
The outer crust of the earth is made of silicate material
On the crust lies the continents and the ocean basins
Beneath the crust is the mantle which is the thickest layer
the mantle contains silicate rocks that are rich in magnesium and iron
Because of the high temperatures, the rocks are sufficiently ductile allowing it to flow
This causes convection which is thought to create the movement of the tectonic plates
The outer core is 2300m thick
it's more viscous than the mantle
it consists of mostly iron and nickel
Finally the inner core
it's completely solid
it's made up of mostly iron
It's approximately 1200km thick
and entirely solid
the scientific understanding of the Earth's structure
is based on the current observations of topography and bathymetry
(the study of the depths of the oceans)
as well as
experiments with crystalline solids in high pressure and temperature
It is very unlikely that humans will explore the earth's interior
Due to the immense heat and pressure
,that humans cannot bear.
as well as the life-threatening deepness
presently, the deepest excavations are in South Africa mines
it's 3.5 km deep
and is in liquid state
The Composition
The earth is a very unique planet, the only planet with the ability to sustain life.
70% of the earth is water.
with only 3% of fresh water
the earth consists of four layers
the crust
the mantle
the outer core
and the inner core
the earth's atmosphere
the earth's atmosphere is composed of the following molecules:
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% argon and smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen, neon, helium, nitrous oxide, xenon, ozone, iodine, carbon monoxide and ammonia
But in the beginning the earth atmosphere was more dense.
Full transcript