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Transcript of Education
Early, Higher, and Adult Education
The Child's Education Began at Home
1) Human society: its types and role in the world
2) Nomadic society, the tribes and savage nations
3) States, the Caliphate, sovereignty and its functions
4) Civilized society
5) Trades, manner of living and occupation
6) Sciences and how to acquire them
The Children of the Wealthy
The Ideals of Aristocratic Education
"Be not strict to the extent of stifling his faculties or lenient to the point of making him enjoy idleness and accustom himself thereto. Straighten him as much as thou canst through kindness and gentleness, but fail not to resort to force and severity should he not respond."
- al-Rashid to the tutor of his son al-Amin
The Elementary School (kuttab)
ibn-Jubayr Damascus 1184
Education of Young Girls
Elementary school teachers called mu'allim, or sometimes faqih on account of their theological training, came to occupy a rather low status socially.
"Seek no advice from teachers, shepherds and those who sit much among women."
Early Status of Educators
“I am the slave of him who hath taught me even one letter”
the higher grade of teachers were highly respected
al-Zarnuji's treaty of pedagogy (theory of education)
A whole body of anecdotes in Arabic literature developed around the teacher as a dunce or unlearned person.
" More foolish than a teacher of an elementary school."
The Importance of Memory Work
Institutions of Higher Education
One of the first prominent institutions of higher learning in Islam was the Bayt al-Hikmah (the house of wisdom)
Consecrated as a theological seminary
In it the Quran and old poetry formed the backbone of the study of the humanities (‘ilm al-adab) precisely as the classics did later in the European universities.
Spread of the Nizamiyah System
Ibn Sahnun (776-854)
Ibn Qutayb (828-889)
Ibn Sina (980-1037)
Ibn Rushd (1126-1198)
Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406)
Ibn Khaldun divides his subjects into six large sections:
Rules of Conduct for Teachers
Teaching & Learning
Adab almu allimin
Persian mother tongue but principal texts in Arabic
idealized a world resting on 2 pillars
very interested in educating the young
most effective method of teaching
2 important pedagogical texts:
Canon of Medicine (al-Qanun fil-Tibb)
The Book of Regimen (Kitab al-Siyasa
2 Intellectual Faculties
The "potential to acquire" knowledge
The "ability to use" acquired knowledge
The "ability to generate" intellectual activity in order to understand complex topics
The "ability to internalize" of the intelligible world
learning begins with the 5 external senses
humans also have 2 intellectual faculties
The Decisive Treatise (Fasl al-maqal)
Moved from Cordoba to Marrakesh
1153 - Became part of the Almohad board of education
Focused heavily on the relationship between faith and reason
2 methods of teaching scripture
reaching formal decisions or judgements
2 approaches to Islamic learning that is dependent on intellectual level
2 types of knowledge provided by scriptural teaching
4 strategies for learning based on need for allegorical interpretation
Learning without any need for allegorical interpretation
Learning that needs allegorical interpretation for their conclusions
Learning that needs allegorical interpretation for their premises
Learning that may or may not require allegrical interpretation
Luckily, many of these principles for religious education can be applied to secular learning
Other guidelines for teachers:
appropriate and holistic approach
combination of deductive and inductive reasoning
Philosophy is at the top of Averroist curriculum
Advocated that people - namely the learned elite - should be free to study intellectual heritage but the uneducated masses should be restricted
Ibn Rushd quotes the Qur'an: "the saying of the Exalted, So, reflect, you who have eyes [to see and understand]"
Born in Tus (near Mashhad, Iran)
Taught canonical Islamic Law at Nizamiya College in Baghdad
Educated in Nishapur and Baghdad
Accepted Greek logic as a neutral instrument of learning but religious sciences as the main body of studies
The Revival of the Sciences of Religion (Ihya' 'ulum al-din)
the link between the heart and the human being
true knowledge is "a light which floods the heart"
outline of the duties of teachers and students
Rules of Conduct for Students
A student must:
1) purify & prepare himself for knowledge
2) remove himself from affairs of the world
3) trust & respect the teacher
4) ignore on contradictory opinions
5) study all branches of knowledge
6) not study everything all at one time
7) master a branch fully before moving on
8) analyze the fruit and validity of a science
9) aim for inner virtue & closeness to God
10) prioritize more important matters over those that are less important
Rules of Conduct for Teachers
A teacher must:
1) be sympathetic towards his students
2) teach for free
3) provide the appropriate material for the students' intellectual level and help them to abide by the student rules of conduct
4) persuade students - subtly and compassionately - to give up bad habits
5) prepare students for learning other branches of knowledge
6) ensure that students continue to enjoy learning
7) not discourage students with confusing details
8) practice what he teaches
Also known as - Alfarabius, Avennasar, or the "second teacher" (after Aristotle)
1st truly eminent Islamic logician
1st muslim scholar to suggest a higher education curriculum which combined "foreign" and "religious" sciences
"foreign" = Greek
"religious" = Qur'anic
His ideas were not immediately accepted into institutions of education, but scholars incorporated his ideas into their private studies
The Demonstration (al-Burhan)
Stresses that terminological precision is a basic prerequisite of learning
: aim of acquiring understanding
: aim of strengthening character
Claims that he is only concerned with human instruction and that divine instruction should not be examined within the parameters of philosophy
Human instruction aims to achieve understanding (
Instruction is an interactive process between the teacher and the student
the teacher must facilitate learning by being descriptive and by using various methods of explanation
the student must work actively with new facts and use them in different contexts
Gunther, Sebastian. "Averroes and Thomas Aquinas on Education." Center for Contemporary Arab Studies (2012): n. pag. Print.
Gunther, Sebastian. "Be Masters in That You Teach and Continue to Learn: Medieval Muslim Thinkers on Educational Theory." COMP EDUC REV Comparative Education Review 50.3 (2006): 367-88. Print.
Gunther, Sebastian. "Praise to the Book! Al-Jahiz and Ibn Qutayba on the Excellence of the Written Word in Medieval Islam." Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 32 (2006): 125-38. Print.