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Animation

Understanding animation
by

Ellie Crowther

on 20 November 2012

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Transcript of Animation

Understanding Animation Persistence of Vision Persistence of vision is a phenomenon of the eye which an afterimage is thought to persist of approximately one twenty fifth of a second on the retina. A visual form of memory called iconic memory is the cause of this phenomenon, psychologists and physiologists have rejected the relevance of this theory to film veiwership, film academics and theorists generally have not. Some scientists nowadays consider the entire theory a myth. Stop Motion Animation Stop Motion is also known as Stop Frame animation which is a technique used to make an everyday object move. The object is moved in small motion between individually photographed frames, creating the illusion of movement when the series of photographed frames are shown at a particular speed one after the other. Dolls with the moveable joints such as the baby dolls or clay figures are easier to use when making a stop motion animation as they are easy to reposition. Not all stop motion animation uses figures or models. Others involve humans, household appliances for the comedic effect. frame rate is the seconds between each picture. Using a higher frame per second means that there will be less gaps and would look more smooth like it was actually moving for example 24 fps. Using anything less would look disjointed and look as if they were pictures. Frame Rate Phenakitoscope Belgian physicist Joseph Plateau and his sons introduced the phenakistoscope in 1832. Simon von Stampfer of Vienna, Austria also invented the Phenakitoscope in the same year who called his invention a stroboscope.
Plateau Was inspired by Michael Faraday and Peter Mark Roget's work. Michael had invented a device that he called "Michael Faraday's Wheel," this was made up of two discs that spun in opposite directions from each other. In England William Horner invented the zoetrope in 1834 He called it the 'Daedalum' ('the wheel of the devil.) This was not popular until the 1860's when makers from England and America brought it to life. The American developer, William F. Lincoln, named his toy the 'zoetrope', which means 'wheel of life'.
It worked with the same principles as the phenakistiscope, but was drawn on a different strip. Zoetrope Praxinoscope 1877 in France Charles- Emile Reynaud invented the Praxinoscope this was invented with the idea of improving the zoetrope. This was made in a similar way to the zoetrope with a strip of pictures placed in a spinning cylinder but it slits are replaced with an in circle of mirriors in the center of the cylinder. Zoopraxiscope 1879 pioneer Eadweard Muybridge the zoopraxiscope is considered to be the first movie projector. the zoopraxiscope projected images from rotating glass disks in rapid succession to give the impression of motion. The stop-motion images were painted onto the glass, as silhouettes. Kinetoscope The Kinetoscope was designed for films to be viewed by one person as it is veiwed through a peephole window at the top of the device. Shown in the image on the right. The Kinetoscope didnt project movies but introduced the basic approach that would become the standard for all cinematic projection before the video started, by creating the illusion of movement by conveying a strip of perforated film bearing sequential images over a light source with a high-speed shutter George Melies His full name is Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès. He was a french illusionist and filmmaker. He was famous for leading many technical and narrative developments when cinema first began. Because of his ability to seemingly manipulate and transform reality through cinematography, Méliès is sometimes referred to as the first "Cinemagician" with such films as "the haunted house,
george Melies uses stopmotion techneques such as making it look like people appear out of nowhere and making people transfrom into different people or creatures to create a more surreal story. Emile Cohl Emile Cohl was a French caricaturist from a largely forgotten Incoherent Movement, cartoonist, and animator, called "The Father of the Animated Cartoon" and "The Oldest Parisian". Ladislaw Starewicz Winsor McCay Earl Hurd and John Bray Walt Disney Ladislaw Starewicz was a Polish-Russian and French stop-motion animator who used insects and other animals as his actors. The "Cameraman's Revenge was made in 1912. He made them move by replacing the insects legs with wire attached with sealing wax to their thorax (top half of the body) A recent stop motion animation that used the illusion like Starewics is "Wallice and Gromit" After a picture has been taken you move the tiniest bit to make it look as if it has moved. The effect that he uses in this animation Fantasmagorie has been hand drawn. Another recent film with a similar technique is "micky mouse" which Walt disiny created in the 1920s and still being produced today. Winsor McCay introduced keyframe animation with "Gerite the Dinasaur." Keyframe animation defines the beginning and end of a movement. This isnt enough to show the whole movement so they created inbetweens to make the movement smooth. Keyframe also defines the timing of the movement. This is a modern equivalent of keyframe made 2008 "Food Fight" In 1914, Earl Hurd tried out cellulose. He invented drawing characters onto transparent celluloid. Earl Hurd worked the John Bray studio, The studio used Hurds invention of celluloid animation. This started the celluloid animation industry. John Bray was a newspaper magazine cartoonist in New york and he took the idea of having a moving object in the foreground and a still background from Winsor McCay. Earl Hurd was working for John Bray and on different websites they say that each one created the idea of using celluloid themselves. 1. SQUASH AND STRETCH
2. ANTICIPATION
3. STAGING
4. STRAIGHT AHEAD AND POSE TO POSE ANIMATION
5. FOLLOW THROUGH AND OVERLAPPING ACTION
6. SLOW-OUT AND SLOW-IN
7. ARCS
8. SECONDARY ACTION
9. TIMING
10. EXAGGERATION
11. SOLID DRAWING
12. APPEAL Squash and Stretch, it gives the impression of the weight and volume of the character as it moves. It also gives the facial movement for dialogue and feelings or emotion.
Also the size must be kept the same even if the shape changes for example a bouncing ball. (But if the ball bounces away from the camera the ball would change shape and get smaller.) A recent production that uses this technique is Doctor Who and their regeneration cycle. In each doctor who regeneration you can see clearly that it has been improved since it first started. Npower advert starring Wallace and Gromit The type of animation that is used in this advert is stop motion animation created by aardman. Animation studios who are well known for there stop motion animation films/shorts such as Wallace and Gromit (who star in this advert.) The reason that they chose to create this advert is because Wallace and Gromit was created in 1989 which young adults and there parents (the bill payers) grew up watching these animations, this advert uses nostalgia to draw the audience in. this advert also uses humor which Wallace and Gromit is also famous for, which will draw in much younger audiences. Looking back at Ladislaw Starewicz and his idea of using materials such as wire within the build of the model, to create the illusion of movement when capturing the tiniest of movements to create a few seconds of film such as a person walking. by Ellie and Pips By Ellie By Ellie By Pips By Pips and Ellie by Pips By Ellie By Pips By Pips By Ellie By Pips By Ellie By Pips By Ellie and Pips By Ellie By Pips
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