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Transcript of Britain's Prehistory
- They invaded because the Celts of Britain were helping the Celts of Gaul against the Romans
- Britain soil was now rich and they had become a food producer The Vikings - Coming from Norway and Denmark, the Vikings started to settle in 865
- They quickly accepted Christianity
- Only king Alfred (Wessex) was strong enough to make a treaty with the Vikings
- Viking rule was recognized in the east and north of England (Danelaw). In the rest of the country Alfred was recognized a as the king However, Britain became hardly habitable until another milder period, probably around 50,000 BC. During this time a new type of human being seems to have arrived, who was the ancestor of the modern
British. Around 10,000 BC the Ice Age drew to a close
and Britain was peopled by small groups of
hunters, gatherers and fishers By about 5000 BC Britain had finally become an island, and had also become heavily forested. For the
wanderer-hunter culture this was a disaster The Neolithic People (or New Stone Age)
About 3000 BC they crossed the narrow sea from Europe. They probably came from either the Iberian(Spanish) peninsula or even the North African coast.
They were small, dark, and long-headed people, and may be the forefathers of dark-haired inhabitants of Wales and Cornwall today.
They settled in the western parts of Britain and Ireland, from Cornwall at the southwest end of
Britain all the way to the far north. Great Works of the Prehistory
Barrows or burial mounds
The henges The Beaker People
After 2400 BC new groups of people arrived in
southeast Britain from Europe. They were taller and stronger than Neolithic Britons - They brought bronze to replace stone
- They buried their dead in separate graves
- Pottery beakers They came to Britain in about 700 BC from central Europe or Southern Russia Many of them were tall, had fair or red hair and blue eyes They knew how to use iron, which allowed them to make stronger weapons than those of bronze They may have pushed older inhabitants to Wales, Scotland and Ireland They continued to arrive for the next 700 years Their importance
- They are the ancestors of many people in Highland Scotland, Wales and Ireland
- Celtic languages are still spoken: Welsh, Irish, Scottish Gaelic
- Anglo-Saxon vs. Anglo-Celt Organization
- They seem to have been ruled by a warrior class
- The Druids, or priests, were important people because they memorized all knowledge (laws, history, medicine and religious teaching)
- Women were equally important . Boadicea fought the Romans fiercely before she was killed Literacy
- The Romans brought the skills of reading and writing to Britain (Latin)
- It was obviously important for spreading ideas
- Britain was more literate under the Romans than it was to be again until the 15th century Settling
- It was not until 43AD that the Romans started to occupy Britain
- They had little difficulty because they had a better army and the Celts fought among themselves
- The Romans described the Celts as highly spirited and quick for battle, characteristics that still some would use to represent the Irish, Scots and Welsh today - The Romans couldn't conquer Caledonia (Scotland) although they tried to do so for a century
- They decided to build a wall to keep away raiders. they named it after their emperor: Hadrian's wall The end of the Roman control
- The Roman control came to an end with the collapse of the empire
- The first signs were the attacks of the Celts of Caledonia in AD 367
- Germanic groups were also raiding
- In AD 409, Rome pulled its last soldiers out of Britain and the Romano-British (Romanized Celts) were left alone fighting the Irish, Scots ans Saxons First attempts
- The Germanic tribes only raided at first, but after AD 430 they started to settle
- The newcomers were warlike and illiterate
- There were three powerful Germanic groups: the Saxons, the Angles and the Jutes - The Anglo-Saxon migration gave the larger part of Britain its name, England, "the land of the Angles"
- The Celts fought, but most were driven into the mountains in the far west. The Saxons called this place "Weallas" or "Wales", the land of the foreigners
- In the north, other Celts were driven into the lowland of the country that became Scotland The beginning of kings claims
- King Offa of Mercia (757-96) claimed "kingship of the English" Government and society
- The Saxons created the King's Council, Witan
- They also divided the land into new administrative areas called "shires" or counties. Over each of these shires was appointed a "shire reeve", the local king's administrator
- In each district there was a manor. This was a simple building where local villagers payed their taxes, where justice was administered and where men met to join the army ("fyrd") Christianity
- It came to Britain before the Roman emperor Constantine accepted it at the beginning of the 4th century
- When the Romans left, Christianity had already been accepted by most people
- The Saxons had driven many Celts into the north and west. In the Celt areas Christianity continued to spread - In 597, Pope Gregory the Great sent a monk, Augustine, to re-establish Christianity in England
- Augustine, who was interested in establishing Christian authority, was very successful with the ruling families, but made little progress with the common people
- The Celtic Church brought Christianity to the ordinary people