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FDR and the Great Depression

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Meghan Hudson

on 23 March 2018

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Transcript of FDR and the Great Depression

The [First] New Deal
FDR's solution to rebuild the economy
Passed in first 100 days
"Relief, reform, recovery"
Deficit spending and welfare programs introduced to help groups in need
Franklin D. Roosevelt
FDR and the Great Depression

Election of 1932
Americans wanted hope and relief from the Depression
FDR won in a landslide
"Only thing we have to fear is fear itself"
Elected POTUS in '32, '36, '40, '44; Democrat
Increased federal role
Over 3,000 executive orders
Led U.S. into WWII
Opposition to FDR
FDR's program gave hope to the American people as unemployment rate decreased...HOWEVER...the Depression had not ended
Huey Long; LA governor and senator -- one of FDR's biggest critics
Populist
Against wealthy
"Share Our Wealth" program
Redistribute wealth to aid poor
7.5 mil supporters
FDR introduced Second New Deal in 1935
Continued Problems
FDR won landslide victory again in Election of 1936
By 1937, FDR criticized that the ND was too expensive, did not reduce unemployment, or end the depression
Congress reduced spending in New Deal programs, triggering a recession in 1938
10 mil unemployed
Economy does not recover until WWII (1941-45)
Second New Deal Programs
Eleanor Roosevelt
FDR's "eyes, ears, and legs" to the issues of the Depression
Gave speeches, radio broadcasts, wrote a daily newspaper column
Spoke out on behalf of African Americans
Transformed role of first lady
Major New Deal Programs
CCC
Work program for young men aged 18-25
Built roads, parks, soil erosion project, and employed 3 million men
PWA
Hired 2 million to build airports, dams, schools, hospitals, parks
FDR and the Banks
Declared four-day bank holiday in March1933
All banks closed
Federal regulators investigated banks to determine which banks were to reopen
Connected with Americans in fireside chats to boost public confidence about his programs
GLASS-STEAGALL BANKING REFORM ACT
Created Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
Insured deposits of $2500
In 1934, only 61 banks failed
TVA
Provided electricity and flood control to the poor, rural areas of the Appalachias/South
AAA
Created to help farmers and stimulate agriculture
Gov't paid farmers not to grow crops and kill livestock to raise prices
Effects of FDR's Presidency
Americans look to federal gov't to intervene in times of crisis
Gov't reformed economy, passing acts still in place today like the FDIC and SSA
New Deal Coalition
Blue collar workers, racial minorities, farmers, urban poor vote Democrat from 1932-1960s
Eisenhower only exception
Millions of jobs created..but unemployment rate @ 19% in 1939
Court Packing Scandal
SCOTUS declared two programs unconstitutional
FDR feared SCOTUS would weaken New Deal
Threatened to "pack the court" by increasing amt of justices from 9 to 15
FDR overstepping federal powers
WPA (1935)
Employed 8.5 mil people
Funded art projects
Built roads, public buildings
SSA (1935) ***
Goal to combat poverty among the elderly and disabled
Pensions for Americans at age 65
Kept people at work
Unemployment
Payments for blind, handicapped, and needy children
Wagner Act (1935)
Protected workers’ right to strike and collectively bargain
Created National Labor Relations Board to investigate unfair business practices
Union membership increased
Full transcript