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Chapter 11, 12, 13
Transcript of Chapter 11, 12, 13
11-1 The Rhetorical Situation
The first steps in effective speech making:
Determine a speech topic and goal that is well-suited for the
Gathering and evaluating information to develop your speech.
Gather and evaluate the information to develop your speech by gathering
1. Age 2. Education level
3. Sex 4. Income
5. Occupation 6. Race
7.Ethnicity 8. Religion
9. Geographic Uniqueness 10. First language
And Subject-related data:
1. Their level of knowledge
2. Initial level of interest in
3. Attitude toward the potential topics you are considering
Data Gathering Methods
1. Conduct a
2. Observe informally
3. Question a representative
4. Make educated guesses
12- 1a Identify Main Points
Begin with two to four main point ideas
Develop each point with supporting material.
Your specific speech goal must
be based on:
Audience analysis and adaptation are based on the
uncertainty reduction theory.
To determine a specific speech goal that is adapted to the
rhetorical situation identifying several
that interest you.
In the end, a good speech has all of these components:
It interests you (the speaker)
Addresses the needs, interests, and
expectations of the audience
Is appropriate for the occasion
12-1b Word Main Points
Shape your main points into a clear sentence
Chapter 11, 12, 13
11. Topic Selection and Development
12. Organizing your Speech
13. Presentation Aids
12 Organizing Your Speech
12-1 Develop the Body
Well- constructed speeches have IMPACT.
First two action steps to organizing your speech:
your general and specific speech goal
a body of information on your topic
Steps when ready to plan body paragraphs :
a) Identifying and arranging
b) Crafting them into a
well-phrased thesis statement
c) Developing each main point with
appropiate suppoting material
(evidence and reasoning)
to move smoothly from one main point to the next
What if the main ideas arent obvious?
1. List ideas you believe relate to your specific goal
2. Eliminate ideas the audience already knows
3. Eliminate ideas that may be too complicated or too broad for audience
4. Check if some ideas can be grouped together under a broader theme
5. From remaining ideas, choose 2-4 points
Preparation Outline: provides draft of main points but not in a complete sentence
Katies Main Points
1. What exactly is Adderall?
2. Increasing number of college students are using Adderall.
3. Abusing Adderall is risky.
Achieve Best Wording
a. Is the relationship between each main point and the speech goal clearly specified?
b. Are the main points parallel in structure?
Shape your main points into clear sentences
1. What exactly is Adderall? --> What exactly is Adderrall, and what is it prescribed for?
- because her fist statement doesn't indicate what purpose Adderall serves as prescription medicine
2. An increase number of American college students are using Adderall? --> Adderall abuse is becoming increasingly popular among American College Students.
3. Abusing Adderall is risky. --> Abusing Adderall as a study aid is dangerous.
Parallel Structure: when main points follow the same structural pattern.
Numbering: first... second... third
I. Format the heading elements correctly.
II. Organize the body into 3 paragraphs
12-1C Select a Main Point Pattern
Different Organizational Patterns
1. Time Order (Sequential Order or Chronological Order): arranges main points in squence or by steps in a process
explain how to do something, how to make something, how something works, or how something happened
2. Narrative Order: conveys ideas through a story or series of stories
Audio- Visual Aids
Anything that send messages through sound
Allows audience to catch a glimpse of what is being explained
-Photograph of an anime prestation aid .
Anything captured on video,
-Clips from Movie's
(Mixed sight and sound)
Visual aids-enhance message to be seen by auidence.
-Charts: Flip,Flow, Pie and Organizational Charts
-Graphs: Line and Bar Graphs.
- Actual Objects and Models
-Diagrams and Handouts/Posters
Audio aids- enhances message through sound.
Audio-Visual aids- combined sight and sound.
Choosing an aid
Other sensory aids: Smell, Touch, and Taste
Organizing your Speech 12-2
: a shocking expression or example used to arouse an audiences interest
request for information that encourage an audience to think about something related to your topic.
a question that doesn’t require an overt response from an audience.
: a question that demands an overt response from an audience.
an account of something that has happened or could happen.
: an anecdote or piece of wordplay designed to be funny and make people laugh.
a brief account of something that happened to you.
a comment made by and attributed to someone other than the speaker
: an act designed to highlight interest in a topic.
wording your attention getter so that it generates uncertainty and excites the audience.
the perception your audience has about your competence and character.
a sentence statement that provides a sense of closure
Appeal to action:
describes the behavior you want your listeners to follow after they have heard your arguments.
LOCATING AND EVALUATING INFORMATON SOURCES
to get an information that was disovered by someone else.
Informations can be found anywhere.
The internet can be used as a main source to seach for information. It is quick and accessible.
The library is another way to search for information.You can also do online library searches.
In order to do a seondary research, here are a couple of things you should know:
How to locate sources
What types of sources you can draw informatoin from?
How to skim and evaluate these information?
TYPES OF SOURCES
you can only overveiw
Not too much details
mostly foucus on art, history, religion, philososphy, and science
covers material in-depth
not a good source for latest information
gives recent information
contains facts about contemporary and historical issues
Provides local information and perspectives
accessible but unreliable
gives numerical information on diffenrent types of subjects such as demography, continents, head of state, weather.
gives information in account of someone's life
QUOTATION BOOKS AND WEB SITES
provocative and informative
can use quote from a respectable person to share a point of view in your topic
Wikipedia is a well known Web sites used to search for information
Lately, in some institution, it has been banned to use wikipedia as primary source.
Its articles lack of citations to support the information.
Can be used for topic that are related to public policy, government documents
easier way to go through a material without reading the entire thing
faster way to see if a material is related to your topic
some articles contain an abstract which can help you have an idea what the article is about.
you can evaluate a source by checking the source validity, accuracy, and reliability
reports factual information that can be considered true
give information with a balanced of controversial ideas
Has reputation of presenting accurate information
The verification of the validity, accuracy, and reliability of a souce can be done through these four criteria:
Authority- check the author and the publishing organization's credential
Objectivity- determine whether the author is biased or objective
Currency- determine whether the informaton is recent by checking the publishing date
Relevance- check if the information is related to your topic
Primary research requires you use fieldwork observation, surveys, interviews, original
artifact or document examinations, or experiments.
focuses on closely observing people or a group of people while you get involve in their community.
I. Introduction: (Attention Getter) Raise your hand if anyone you know has taken Adderall. Keep your hand raised if the person you know to be taking Adderall is doing so without a prescription.
(The speakers credibility comes in for audience, Sometimes it is good to use a
that relates to your topic.)
II. Thesis Statement: Talk about the increasing use of un-prescribed Adderall by college students.
III. Body ( Supporting Details & Facts)
IV. Conclusion: Reinstate Thesis Statement, Main Point Review & Clincher.
Record of information based on people's ideas and opinions.
A conversation between two or more people, where one ask questions and the others answer them.
ORIGINAL ARTIFACT OR DOCUMENT EXAMINATIONS
Informations that have not been published.
Use to test a hypothesis. the result can be used in your speech.
INDENTIFYING AND CITING INFORMATION
Once your sources have been collected, you need to be able to identify the information that will use in your speech. Those informations will be based on the factual statements, expert opinions, and elaborations of the material.
Statements that can be verified
You can find them in form of statistics or examples.
based in narrative theory, shows important way of communication is by storytelling
3. Topical Order : arranges the main points using some logical relationship among them
main points might generate from general to specific, least to most important, most to least familiar etc.
4. Logical Reasons Order: structures main points according to reason for accepting the thesis as desirable or true
usually used when goal is to persuade
12-1d Write the Thesis Statement
: one or two sentence summary that incorportaes your general and specific goals and previews the main points of your speech
"Off-label Adderall use by college students is growing in popularity among college students. To clarify, let's discuss the nature and purpose of Adderall as a prescription drug , its growing popularity as a study aid among college students and problems associated with using Adderall as a study aid."
12-1e Outline the Speech Body
: written framework of the sequential and hierarchal relationships among ideas in the speech.
Three Levels of Hierarchy
1. Main Points
2. Subpoints that support a main point
12-1f Develop Main Points
developed with subpoints and supporting material
: statements that elaborate on a main point
might have more than one due to complexity of main point
: developmental material you gathered through secondary and primary research
are identified by sorting through the research compiled in annotated bibliography and/or research cards to find evidence
then look for relationships between and among ideas
Listener Relevance Link
: piece of information that alerts listeners to why the main point is relevant to them
atleast have one subpoint of Listener Relevance Link in each main point
PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE
Since you know something about your topic, you can share your credentials, when doing your speech.
Use only statistics that are reliable and valid
recent statistics will not mislead your audience
Use statistics comparatively
Statistics can sometime be biased
Detailed explanation of factual statements
Judgement made by an authority in a particular subject area
Experts can help understand the meaning of a fact.
You can elaborate on factual information and expert opinion by using anecdote and narratives, comparisons and contrasts, or quotable explanations and opinions
COMPARISON VS CONTRAST
Comparison highlights similarities while contrast highlights differences.
Comparison and contrast can be both literal and figurative.
ANECDOTES VS NARRATIVES
Anecdotes are short stories and narratives are account, personal experiences, tale, or lengthier stories.
Well-explained information that can be used in your speech.
too much quotation can cause you to lose your audience's attention
When you are using a quote you have to acknowledge the person who said it
Not acknowledging the source of an imformation is an act of plagarism
11-1b Ethical Use of Audience Data
Adapting to your audience also means creating a speech that all audience members can relate to.
Avoid two potential drawbacks:
Reduce your chances of these drawbacks by identifying and acknowledging the
11-1c Examine the Occasion
Answers to several questions about the
should guide you when selecting your topic and throughout the speech-making process.
1. What is the intended purpose of the speech?
2. What is the expected length?
3. Where will the speech be given?
4. When will the speech be given?
5. What equipment is necessary and available?
You can identify subjects by listing
(1) you think are important and
(2) you know something about.
11-2b Brainstorm and Concept Map
Two methods for identifying topics are brainstorming and
11-2c Select a Topic
As you review your topic list, compare each to your audience profile.
The topics that remain should be appropriate for the rhetorical situation.
Choose one that you would enjoy preparing and sharing with the audience.
11-3a Understanding General and Specific Goals
Once you have chosen your topic, you are ready to identify the
of your speech and then to write your
statement tailored to the audience and occasion.
11-3b Phrasing a Specific Goal Statement
1. Write a first draft of your specific speech goal statement.
2. Make sure the goal statement contains only one central idea.
3. Revise the statement until it clearly articulates the desired audience response.
12-1g Create Transitions
: words, phrases, or sentences that show the relationship between or bridge ideas
: complete sentence that shows the relationship between or bridges major parts of a speech
typically summarize what has just been said in one main point and preview the one coming up next
1. help audience follow the organizational of ideas in the speech
2. help audience members remember information
: short word or phrase transitions that connect pieces of supporting material to the main point or subpoint they address
1. number ideas
2. help focus on a key idea
3. used to introduce an explanation
4. signal lengthy anecdote coming to an end
Just as section transitions serve as the glue that holds your big-picture main points together, signposts connect your subpoints and supporting material together within each main point.
SEEK INFORMATION FROM MULTIPLE CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES
Seeking information from sources with different cultural background can help you see the information from a diffwerent perspective.
Once you have found your information, you should record them along with citations.
How to record the information you plan to use?
- You can do so by compiling annotated bibliography and create research card.
Lists of citations of a relevant sources that you collected during your research.
Each entry of an annotated bibliography consists of a brief summary
Complete citation of each source
How the source is relevant to your topic
Direct quotations that you might use in your speech
Index cards that provides one piece of information that is relevant to your topic
Consist of a a main idea and citation
useful to easily arrange your information
acknowledge the source where you find your information
Aggrandize the credibility of what you say
In your speech you must provide oral footnotes