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Transcript of KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS
"What were the causes of the French Revolution ?"
"How can we know
if at all,
the causes of the French Revolution ?"
They can apply to
any aspect of knowledge
and may refer to the :
"What is our evidence ?"
"What is this ?"
"Which aspects do we chose ?"
"What is our purpose ?"
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
Knowledge questions are:
that admit more than one possible answer
(No definitive yes and no answer type of questions !)
explicitly about knowledge in itself
and not subject-specific claims
- couched in terms of TOK vocabulary and concepts
he areas of knowledge, the ways of knowing and the concepts, linking questions,
belief, certainty, culture, evidence, experience, explanation, interpretation, intuition, justification, truth, values•
- precise in terms of the relationships between these concepts.
How do we (know).... ?
How can we....
To what extent....
In what way might...
What is the role of the Ways of Knowing...
"Who is our audience ?"
" Who built this ?"
POSSIBLE KNOWLEDGE UESTIONS IN HISTORY
"How does the context within which historians live affect historical knowledge ?"
"To what extent might the position of an historian
within their own epoch and culture undermine the value of their interpretation ?"
"If truth is difficult to prove in history, does it follow that all versions are equally acceptable ? "
SO, WHAT ARE KNOWLEDGE qUESTIONS ?
Truth & knowledge:
"Does the word ‘truth’ have different meanings in different contexts?"
"What are the best grounds for saying that we know something rather than believe it?"
"In what ways can we overcome problems of knowing to arrive at an understanding of things as they really are?"
"Are there areas where it is not necessary to rely on one‟s experience and culture to understand something?
"To what extent can we understand knowledge claims from a different culture?"
HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES* THAT YOU MIGHT LIKE TO USE
AS POSSIBLE INSPIRATION FOR YOUR PRESENTATION (S)
*They are taken from various ToK subjects reports (2009/2012)
CRITICAL AND CREATIVE THINKING :
"Is it possible to generate knowledge through critical thinking alone ?"
"To what extent does critical thinking depends on creative thinking and vice- versa ?"
CAS /and or personal knowledge
"What is the role of personal experience in the construction of knowledge ?"
"In what ways can bias and selection make positive contributions to attaining knowledge ?"
WAYS OF KNOWING
In what ways does language affect how we interpret the world?
Reason & Emotion:
"What is the role of reason (or emotion) in trying to reach truth?"
"To what extent can we distinguish between rational and emotional inputs into decision-making?"
"What does it mean to ‘rationally criticise’ a knowledge claim?"
"To what extent can reason operate in isolation from other ways of knowing?"
"What is the role of reasoning in making claims beyond our immediate experience?"
"What roles do intuition and reason play in the support of explanation ?"
manipulate people in their beliefs?
WAYS OF KNOWING
Knowledge and faith
"To what extent is faith a personal way of knowing or a shared experience ?"
"To what extent is it possible to have knowledge without a contribution from faith ?"
Knowledge and doubt :
"To what extent do different areas of knowledge incorporate doubt as a part of their methods?"
"Under what circumstances might doubt undermine the construction or acquisition of knowledge?"
"Why is the possibility of doubt needed for knowledge?"
The role of experts:
In what ways and areas would the absence of experts most severely limit our knowledge?
Under what circumstances should we ignore the opinions of experts in the various areas of knowledge?
On what basis might we decide between the judgements of experts if they disagree?
To what extent is the knowle
The role of models:
"In the construction of a model, how can we know which aspects of the world to include and which to ignore?"
"What aspects of the world are not amenable to representation by models?"
"How is new knowledge acquired through the use of models?"
"Since a model is, strictly speaking, false how can it lead to knowledge traditionally thought of as being"
Content vs. methodology:
"To what extent does the methodology of an academic discipline remain constant?"
"To what extent does the methodology of an investigation limit or determine the outcomes that are possible?"
"Why might we be more concerned with process rather than product in the search for knowledge?"
The use of evidence:
"What counts as evidence in various areas of knowledge?"
"To what extent are we obliged as knowers to provide evidence for our beliefs?"
"How can we know when we have sufficient evidence?"
"What could be the value of an unsupported belief?"
"When is quantitative data superior to qualitative data in describing a phenomenon?"
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
KNOWLEDGE AND PROGRESS
"Are there limits to what we can learn about the world through perception?"
"How can our expectations affect how we perceive the world?"
"What is the scope, and what are the limits of sensory information in different areas of knowledge?"
"How can language be used to persuade and
"Might the language(s) we speak affect how we understand ideas?"
"What kinds of truth are the arts capable of expressing?"
To what extent are the insights available from the appreciation of a work of art dependent upon the intentions of the artist?"
"What might be meant by a ‘lie’ in the context of an artwork?"
"To what extend are the limits of arts defined by morality ?"
The Natural Sciences:
"How does the scientific method allow scientists to develop explanations? Is there an equivalent method in other areas of knowledge?"
"How can we be sure that scientific evidence gained through the use of technology is genuine?"
"How does a scientific explanation distinguish between correlation and causation?"
"How can we know when we have a good scientific explanation?"
The Human Sciences:
"How can we draw a clear line between fact and interpretation in History ?"
"To what extent does the use of reason bring us closer to the truth in History ?"
"Does our interpretation of knowledge from the past allow us to reliably predict the future?"
"Are mathematical statements true because we define them to be so, or because we discover them to be so?"
"To what extent can we use reason to evaluate two competing ethical systems?"
"What should the role of emotion be in the justification of ethical decisions?"
To what extent are the methods of the human "sciences scientific"?
"In the Verstehen position, how might the emotions of the investigator as object of study affect the result of the investigation?"
"Are there general laws that describe human behaviour?"
"Are there areas of human experience which cannot be quantified? If so, why?"
Religious knowledge systems
Indigenous knowledge systems:
Possible knowledge uestions in the AOK
"We can know it because of remaining artifacts, eye witness testimonies, such as reports, dairies, articles, and the diverse interpretations of historians, support of sciences such as dna or carbon 14 dating, etc..."
Diverse audiences and diverse interpretations of historians also play a role in this dynamic process
of trying to give a possible, plausible answer.
How have we acquired this knowledge, accepted it or classified it, shaped it or rejected it ?