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APUSH Ch. 10

Taylor Buchta, Chris Gregorakis, Josh Burris, and Ricky White

Taylor Buchta

on 11 October 2012

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Transcript of APUSH Ch. 10

Launching the New Ship of State 1789-1800 Growing Pains Washington for President The Bill of Rights Customs Duties and Excise Taxes Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank Hamilton Revives the Corpse of Public Credit Mutinous Moonshiners
in Pennsylvania Anti-federalists criticized the Constitution for 'its failure to provide guarantees of individual rights...' Hamilton was a native of the
British West Indies The national debt grew to $75 million, because of Hamilton insisting on honoring state and federal obligations Hamilton-Wants a national bank to print much needed paper money to stimulate the failing economy
Jefferson- This wasn't outlined in the constitution so its up to states to do it
Hamilton-What the constitution didn't forbid was permitted Argues that state was allowed to collect taxes and regulate trade making a national bank necessary.
Hamilton's views prevailed Washington reluctantly signed the bank measure into law
The bank of the United states- as created by congress in 1791, was chartered for twenty years, had a capital of 10 million dollars one-fifth owned by the government Whiskey Rebellion- 1794 Constitution launched in 1789 The population was doubling every 25 years First official census - 1790
almost 4 million people Philidelphia
42,000 New York
33,000 Boston
18,000 Charleston
16,000 Baltimore
13,000 Mostly rural, even with the large cities All but 5% of the population was east of the Appalachians Anyone west of the Appalachians were in Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee Washington was unanimously drafted by Electoral College in 1789 Imposing Presence:
6'2" , 175 pounds Preferred the quiet of Mount Vernon Took the oath of office on
April 30, 1789
in New York City Established a cabinet Secretary of State
Thomas Jefferson

Secretary of the Treasury
Alexander Hamilton

Secretary of War
Henry Knox Chapter 10 2 ways to propose amendments:
new constitutional convention requested by 2/3 of the states
a 2/3 vote from both houses of congress The first 10 amendments Judiciary Act of 1789
Organized the Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and five associates Wanted the government to fund the national debt at par Funding at par- the government would pay off its debts at face value plus interest People doubted the new Treasury -- the government bonds had gone down to 10 or 15 cents per dollar Assumption- The state debts were regarded as a national debt because it was for independence Massachusetts was for it, Virginia was not, but wanted the federal district (Washington DC) to be on part of their land Assumption act was carried out in 1790 Hamilton believed that a national debt was a "national blessing" Hamilton is considered "The Father of National Debt" First Tariff Law 8% tax on all imports

Passed by congress in 1789 1791- Hamilton secured an excise tax
-domestic items, mainly whiskey Brought on by Hamilton's taxes

Whiskey was not just a drink but a form of payment Tar and featherings put tax collecting to a halt There was doubt as to if other state's men would fight against the rebellion 13,000 men rallied up and marched to PA where they got stuck in knee deep mud Only 3 rebels were killed, but the government got new respect The Emergence of Political Parties Government now had a sound credit rating - thanks to Hamilton The Impact of the French Revolution Many colonists may not have agreed to the constitution if they knew that the state governments would be overshadowed Washington's first term ends 1793
Two prominent parties, Democratic-Republicans, and Federalists
French revolution was felt world wide not just in France
Americans cheered in the early stages of the revolution. Feared it when it turned violent on Bastille Day
France declares war on Austria in 1792 France defeating Austria (What a surprise there) Declares itself a Republic
As England was sucked into the conflict America was as well sucked into a battle for control of the Atlantic
Reign of Terror - started with the king being beheaded by guillotine What was once a small dispute between Jefferson and Hamilton turned into a full grown rivalry There were no major political parties when GW was sworn in - only factions (Whigs, Tories, Federalists, and anti-federalists) Organized opposition to the government was thought to be filled with disloyalty The Two Party system has existed since this time and we could not have a democratic government without it Neutrality Proclamation Embroilments with Britain London government did not want to abandon fur trading posts in the Great Lakes Franco-American alliance of 1778 was still on the books it was to last 'forever'
Demo-Republicans favored honoring the alliance argues that America owes France its freedom
Washington Argues that war had to be avoided at all cost. In 1793 The nation was militarily Feeble, Economically weak, and politically split
Neutrality Proclamation in 1793 proclaimed that the government was to stay neutral and it advised the citizens to also take the same stance
Edmond Genet landed in Charleston Virginia and started hiring privateers for the French navy taking advantage of the Franco-American alliance, After un-neutral activity not authorized by the Franco-American alliance (recruiting armies to invade spanish Florida and Louisiana and British Columbia) Washington demanded a new Emissary
America was actually more of an asset to France as a Reliable Neutral provider. British openly sold weapons to the Miami Indians
-took them and terrorized Americans Battle of Fallen Timbers- 1794 - General "Mad Anthony" Wayne routed the Miami Indians Treaty of Greenville- August 1795
Americans bought land from Indians, but they could still hunt there British wanted to starve out the French, and wanted America to protect them - but America was neutral Britain's Navy attacked American Ships

Seized 300 american merchant ships

Threw many merchants into dungeons Many people wanted to stop exports/imports to/from England John Adams Becomes President Hamilton was very well known, but his financial policies made sure he did not get elected Federalists and Anti-federalists were split on who they would vote for Jay's Treaty and
Washington's Farewell To try to advert war, Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to London in 1794 The Jeffersonians were afraid he would sell out the country- and scared them more when he kissed the Queen's hand Jay entered negotiations, not knowing Hamilton was supplying London with details of the American bargaining strategy Britain said they would remove the chain of posts on US soil
(They said this already in 1783 at Paris!) They also said they would pay for damages to the merchant ships, but did NOT say anything about future damage Jay's Treaty The United States would still have to pay pre-revolutionary debts to British merchants Fearing that Jay's Treaty would make an Anglo-American alliance, Spain granted the Untied States what they wanted (free navigation of the Miss., warehouse rights, and western Florida) Pinckney's Treaty Washington decided to retire after his second term, setting the Two-Term precedent In his Farewell address, Washington advised avoiding strong foreign alliances, but said not to get rid of temporary ones Even though he was outshone by Hamilton, Washington kept us out of wars and the west was expanding Federalists and Anti federalists would drink in separate taverns Most of John Adams' support was from New England, and was elected with the votes 71-68 in his favor. Jefferson became the Vice President Had political handicaps-
-Filling the shoes of Washington
-inherited a violent quarrel with France
-Was hated by Hamilton
who plotted against him Unofficial Fighting with France French hated Jay's treaty, and saw it as a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778 French warships began to seize defenseless American Merchant ships Pres. Adams sent over 3 diplomats to France
-They were intercepted by 3 go-betweens (X,Y, and Z)
-They demanded 32 million florins plus $250,000 just to talk to Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
-Did not talk to him because they were not sure of a settlement
-John Marshall was hailed as a hero for his
steadfast-ness War preparations were pushed

Navy created
Marines Re-Established
and a new army was authorized The undeclared war was in the sea, and mostly in the West Indies
Americans captured 80 French ships, although over 100 American ships were lost Adams Puts Patriotism Above Party France did not want a war Talleyrand said that if they sent another diplomat he would be received with respect 1799- Adams wanted to send another minister to France, there was different opinions between Jeffersonians and Hamilton Napoleon Bonaparte had seized dictatorship in 1800, as the diplomats were arriving Convention of 1800
Annulled the 22 year marriage , but the US would pay the damage claims of american Shippers Adams did not only avoid war, but paved the way for the later purchase of the Louisiana Territory The Federalist Witch Hunt European immigrants were scorned by the Federalist party Raised the residence requirements from 5 years to 14 years Alien Laws
The president could deport dangerous foreigners if need be Sedition Act
If you spoke out against the government you could be fined or imprisoned Many Jeffersonian editors were put on trial and many imprisoned, including Matthew 'The Spitting Lion' Lyon who spit in a Federalist's face The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions Federalists Versus Democratic- Republicans Jefferson feared that if the Federalists choked out free speech and press, other constitutional guarantees could get lost Jefferson secretly passed a series of resolutions in Kentucky in 1798 and 1799 Madison passed a similar resolution in Virginia in 1798 Jefferson said that since the states created the federal government, the government could not overstep certain bounds, and if it did it was on the states to stop them No other states adopted these ideas, and some said it was up to the Supreme Court to nullify unconstitutional ideas The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions were later used by the south to secede from the Union HAS GREAT IDEA FOR A
THE UNION 61 YEARS LATER Thought John Jay should be the next president Government should support private enterprise but not interfere Known as Republicans Headed by Thomas Jefferson lacked personal
aggressiveness weak voiced Had a strong appeal to middle and lower class was "a traitor to his upper class" "I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man" Demanded a weak central regime
-the best government was the one that governed the least
-the majority of power should be with the states
-public could keep an eye on the politics No special privileges for special classes (manufactures) Government FOR the people,
but not voted for by ALL the people -white men that were literate Universal education ignorant = incapable of self-government black slave labor would ensure landowning in south property less voters would be "political pawns" Jefferson was abused by Federalist newspapers Pro-French thought it better to support liberal French Ideals wanted foreign trade with Britain "British boot-lickers" wanted to expand America's commercial interests
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