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Integumentary System

Mr. Hall Due May 3

Luis Taboada

on 21 June 2010

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Transcript of Integumentary System

The Integumentary System Protects the internal organs and helps keep away bacteria and viruses
Helps mantain normal body temperure no matter if one is in a cold or hot enviorment
Prevents excess fluid loss
Guard the body from UV light
Homeostasis Interaction With
Other Systems Care for Skin
Disorders Careers Current research/
Technology Did You Know? The skin is the largest organ in a human's body
The skin accounts for about 20% of your body weight
The skin releases as much as three gallons of sweat a day in hot weather.
The area of your skin will multiply 7 times between birth and maturity
"Average adult, the skin covers about 21.5 square feet (2 square meters) and accounts for approximately 12 to 15 percent of body weight, or about 12 pounds (5.5 kilograms) in most adults." (Nagel)
"The average square inch (6 cm2) of human skin contains 650 sweat glands, 20 blood vessels, 60,000 melanocytes, and more than a thousand nerve endings." (Nagel) Psoriasis Vitiligo Albinism Causes white spots and patches to appear on the skin.
It is caused when melanocytes, cells that create pigment in the skin, are destroyed, causing the spots.
It is unsure exactly what causes the cells to be destroyed.
Psoriasis causes red patches of scaly skin.
Nobody is sure what triggers it, but it appears more often in the winter, and can fade in the summer and warm months.
Many people who have psoriasis have a history of it in their family.
It resembles a rash, and may cause some itching
Unlike many rashes it is not contagious.
Albinism is hereditary, although not very common.
An affected person may either be totally or partially albino.
It is caused when there is a lack of melanocytes.
The reason for this is could either be a failure to create the pigment (melanin), or a disturbance of the migration of these cells during development. One should use sunblock in hot summer days
proper nutrition, physical activity, none or little stress, rest, good amount of Vitamins A, D, and E
Harsh chemicals and excessice scrubbing will damge the skin and dry up the skin
Soothing, gentle motions for cleaning the skin with soap or lotions are much better
One can even apply mosisturizer to all the skin to keep it from being dry Diseases Acne happens when the pores mainly on the face and scalp become clogged with sebum, an oily secretion, builds up with dead skin cells.
Bacteria may enter this, then infect the pore causing pus to build up under the skin.
It is believed that acne can be inherited, and also occurs mainly during adolescence/puberty because of hormones.
Prevention/treatment- keep the surface clean, wash the skin twice a day at most
Too much can irritate and remove the acid mantle, possibly eating less fatty foods can help

Chicken Pox (varicella) is a viral disease that creates red rashes on the skin.
It is highly contagious and causes itching and high fevers (100- 102 degrees F), and will usually go away after 5 to 20 days.
It is most common in children under 15.
Prevention/treatment- Avoid people with Chicken Pox
you should also avoid scratching, as the sores could open and become infected.
A vaccine has been created to prevent Chicken Pox, but because it is viral there are no antibiotics to get rid of the disease.
However you can treat the symptoms, by soothing the itching with lotion.
Acne Chicken Pox Skin Cancer There are three major types of skin cancer- Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma.
Basal cell and squamous cell develop in the keratinocytes of the outer skin. They appear mostly on the face but also other parts of the body.
Basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma appear as a reddish bump, and neither usually spread to other parts of the body.
Malignant melanoma is more dangerous, because it will often spread. It appears as an irregular looking mole.
Prevention/treatment- Skin cancer is usually easier to treat and prevent than other cancers because you can wear clothes to avoid exposure to ultraviolet light, or apply sun block often when in the sun.
If the cancer has not spread, the affected mole/bump/lesion can just be removed, and then the person would watch for any other moles. The skin can heal and grow back unlike other organs.
If the cancer spreads, it would have to be treated according to which area is affected Dermatologist
Dermatologists treat skin conditions and other parts including things like nail problems and hair loss.
The current median expected salary for a typical Dermatologist in the United States is $196,150.
Over half the people employed as dermatologists earn between $169,504 and $246,323.
In general, training for dermatology requires twelve years of undergraduate and post-graduate education in the field of medicine, as well as specialization in surgery.
They may work at hospitals, private practice, or clinics.
Artificial Skin Artificial Skin is a technique to help regenerate skin that is often used for burn victims.
It is made of an underlayer of collagen derived from cows, a connective tissue from shark cartilage called glycosaminoglycan, and a silicon outer layer.
It starts by removing the layer of burned skin, then the graft of this, referred to as a scaffold, is shaped to cover the affected area and is held in place and covered.
It works by giving blood vessels and skin cells a structure to grow on to re-create the damaged dermis.
The silicon top layer is used to prevent fluid loss, and can be removed when the vessels grow and a graft of skin from the patient is ready to replace it.
The collagen will be absorbed into the body, and the graft of skin will grow to replace the lost skin.
Finger Print System Every finger print is unique to an individual, it is how the city, state, or country recognize someone
Your fingers contains hundreds and hundreds of little bumps that form lines and eventually into loops or circles
Created by an English scientist Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911)
He also made it simple for countries to recognize any individual by the means of fingerprints and other measurements. How it Works Epidermis:
Is made up of squamous epithelial tissue and is the outside layer of the skin.
An important cell found in the epidermis is melanocyte, its a protein that determines your skin color rangin from white to yellow to brown to black.
It is also the "dead" skin cells that are on it and have keratin, a durable and waterproof protein.
Yes.. we all are shedding skin as I speak, we shed 1300 dead skin cells per hour!!!
Is the middle layer of the skin and " is formed of connective tissue. Bundles of elastic and collagen (a tough fibrous protein) fibers blend into the connective tissue. These fibers provide the dermis with strength and flexibility. " (Nagel Rob)
"Hair, sweat glands, and sebaceous (oil) glands are all rooted in the dermis" ( Nagel Rob)
Unlike the epidermis' cells, the dermis' cells are actually alive!!!
It is where all your censory receptors are located- pain, touch, hot, cold, etc.

Is the inside layer of the skin and is mainly used for the storage of fats which serves to keep the body warm in cold weather
It is also like a cushion, making it easier to withstand slaps, hits, cuts, friction, etc. Body Temperture Protection The normal temperture for the human body is about 98` F
Eccrine glands are vital in mantaining regular body temp.
When it is hot they excrete sweat and eventually the sweat will evaporate, leaving the skin cool.
When it is cold, the skin (or you) start to shiver and sometimes develop goosebumps to mantain the body heat. Keratin is very very very vital for skin protection.
Thanks to this protein we are able to shower, swim, handle chemicals, and objects without much harm to our body.
It also prevents harmful viruses and bacteria from entering the body.
Melanin also helps protect the body or skin from the harmful UV rays.
The darker you get the longer the skin will be able to withstand the UV rays but too much tanning can cause skin cancer or cause the skin to take on a leathery appearance. Skin/Nervous System- Nerves are found in the layers of the skin also, and allow the body to feel and respond to the environment.
Skin/Muscular System- The skin covers and protects the muscles from external damage
Skin/Skeletal System-The skin synthesizes Vitamin D which allows the absorption of Calcium necessary for bone formation
Skin/Immune System- The skin secretes sebum and sweat, when they mix the acid mantle is created, inhibiting much bacterial growth making it the body’s first defense
Skin/Circulatory- There are many small capillaries found in the skin which are used to transport absorbed/synthesized substances
Skin/Excretory- Excretes sweat through the pores integumentum- tegere to cover
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