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London Docklands Regeneration
Transcript of London Docklands Regeneration
London Docklands Regeneration
3 Main Causes
Before - Causes of the decline and impacts of degeneration
During - The Regeneration Project
After - The Results and looking to the future
After the end of World War II, London was a city in desperate need of large-scale rebuilding. As ever after a period of destruction, architects and planners saw the opportunity for remodelling at the same time. And while all this was going on, the population reorganised and rejuvenated itself.
In London, the first 10-storey council housing block opened in Holborn in May 1949. High-rise housing was touted as the solution to London’s growing population, replacing housing lost during the war and London’s slums. By the 1960s, over half a million new flats had been built, many of them in tower blocks.
The LLDC was responsible for the advertisement of the developments to attract private investment and make a return on the public investments made to fund the project.
What do you think of the advertising campaign?
After World War II (1939-45) and until the 1980s, London experienced net out-migration. This reversed the urbanisation process, and is know as counter-urbanisation.
Counter-urbanisation is where people move away from urban areas and into rural areas. It first took place as a reaction to inner-city deprivation and overcrowding.
This is one cause of post-war counter-urbanisation:
Following the bomb damage caused to property many people were forced to leave London. Those who couldn't leave moved into slum settlements. After the war ended theses slums were cleared up and people either had to leave or were re-housed within the city.
The creation of new towns
To absorb the population overspill from the clearance of slums in London, new towns were created just outside the city. These included Basildon, Stevenage and Harlow. This affected the way that the city functioned because less people lived in it, instead they were concentrated in the suburbs.
Have a look at each of the three sites, what do you notice about the types of development in each? What sort of standard of living do you think it would facilitate?
Nature selects the longest way,
And winds about in tortuous grooves;
A thousand years the oaks decay;
The wrinkled glacier hardly moves.
But here the whetted fangs of change
Daily devour the old demesne –
The busy farm, the quiet grange,
The wayside inn, the village green.
In gaudy yellow brick and red,
With rooting pipes, like creepers rank,
The shoddy terraces o'erspread
Meadow, and garth, and daisied bank.
With shelves for rooms the houses crowd,
Like draughty cupboards in a row –
Ice-chests when wintry winds are loud,
Ovens when summer breezes blow.
Roused by the fee'd policeman's knock,
And sad that day should come again,
Under the stars the workmen flock
In haste to reach the workmen's train.
For here dwell those who must fulfil
Dull tasks in uncongenial spheres,
Who toil through dread of coming ill,
And not with hope of happier years –
The lowly folk who scarcely dare
Conceive themselves perhaps misplaced,
Whose prize for unremitting care
Is only not to be disgraced
Slum clearance in South London
Why it's important:
AQA iGCSE curriculum requirements:
A case study to show 'an urban planning scheme that aims to regenerate and improve the inner city or revitalise the CBD'.
Our objectives today:
1. To be able to describe the extent to which the LDDC improved inner city London,
2. To be able to give reasons for the initial decline,
3. To gain experience of answering exam questions for this topic.
A Brief Overview
The population of London had been decreasing since WWII as people migrated out of the city in hope of finding a better quality of life.
Unemployment was as high as 60% among adult males after the docks closed in 1980. It was clear to the government that something had to be done.
The London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) was created in 1981. It was an Urban Development Corporation (UDC) and was entrusted with the redevelopment of 8.5 miles sq of the East End.
The UK industry suffered as an effect of cheap workforces in developing manufacturing countries such as China compared to the expensive workforces of the UK who are protected by minimum wage levels. This drove up prices of exports and so deterred international business, resulting in the closure of many factories and mines. This was a very bleak time, remember the song 'Ghost Town' by The Specials.
Another contributing factor to the de-industrialisation was the mechanisation of shipping, which involved the use of containers for shipment of goods. This reduced the man power required on docks and also called for larger ships, for which most of the UK's docks were unable to cater. The docks closed in phases between 1978 and 1983 and triggered the closure of many factories as they no longer had the necessary transport links. In total the closure of the docks caused over 12,000 jobs to be lost.
Old-fashioned London dock workers
Modern container shipping
Arthur Scargill led protests against the closures of mines to try to save jobs during the Thatcher years.
An advertisement campaign for the LDDC.
The Creation of a 'Post-Industrial' Economy:
To replace lost employment, the government under Margaret Thatcher planed deliberate changes to the UK economy by encouraging a 'post industrial' economy, directing investment towards:
the 'knowledge' economy - developing high-value expertise, management and consultancy sectors. The biggest contributor to this was to be banking finance, where international banks would use the UK as a base to global investment. The other significant sectors would be media and advertising, law, and IT. Such employment can locate anywhere - it is 'footloose' - with decisions about where to locate being made largely on the basis of financial incentives such as tax breaks.
tourism - the world's fastest growing industry, resulting from greater prosperity in HICs, cheaper air travel and increased car ownership.
property - many cities sought to re-brand their past by creating a new image based on industrial heritage in former ports, canals, and old factories.
Regenerating Canary Wharf
London's biggest asses was undoubtedly its Docklands, a 21 km2 stretch of land parallel to the Thames and available for redevelopment. No other city in the world had such a vast amount of land close to its financial heart, the City of London. A key feature of the regeneration is the Canary Wharf complex where tenents include headquarters of global banks, investment banks, newspapers and news agencies, and consultancy and accounting firms. All together 100,000 commuters work in these offices, adding to the 325,000 who work in the City of London.
Improvements to Infrastructure
Transport developments (known as infrastructure) have been developed to ensure that commuters can get to work. These include:
extending the London Underground network, e.g. the Jubilee Line
developing the Docklands Light Railway, a surface rail network which covers most of the Docklands area,
new road links, such as the Limehouse Road Link, taking traffic through the Docklands,
London City Airport (located about 6 miles from Central London), which provides easy access to the City and Canary Wharf from international sites.
In three decades, the Docklands regeneration has transformed east London.
Vast commercial space
London has become one of the world's major financial centers. Canary Wharf is now full, but there are plans to double its space by 2025 by building further upwards.
The developments have restored the number of jobs lost in manufacturing with new jobs in business services.
Consider though, are they likely to be the same people as who originally worked in this area?
Could this be a sort of gentrification of the population?
Where have the dock workers gone and how have these areas been affected?
Improved Urban Environment
The urban environment had undoubtedly been improved. Study the image and consider the ways in which these improvements have been made, and what impact they could have on quality of life.
One of the major critisicms of the Docklands regeneration is that it did not benefit local people to the same degree as it did for well-qualified, high income earners from outside. This drove a wedge between the 'new Eastenders' and the former dockworkers, between the social housing estates constructed after WW2 to house local people in need, and the private security-fenced apartments overlooking the Thames.
East London still suffers from deprivation, poor health and poor environmental quality. In fact, health statistics show that on a journey along the Jubilee Line between Westminster in Central London and Stratford, its terminus in East London, life expectancy drops by nine years - one year by every station. Wealth and poverty sit almost side by side.
Consider what impacts this could have on political attitudes?
Future Development Plans
The problems of the Docklands regeneration have highlighted the importance of regeneration focusing on the needs of the original inhabitants. With this in mind, furture developments are being classed as 'community focussed' or 'bottom-up' regeneration. This includes the renovation of social housing, training to improve employability in the city, the creation of affordable homes, and the improvement of facilities. This is being emphasised in governemment policies since 1997 and is called the New Deal initiatve. One example is in Shadwell in East London.
In 1981 housing in the UDA was of poor quality and in short supply.
9.1 % of stock was classified as overcrowded.
20% was classified as being in poor or uninhabitable condition.
95% of the housing was rented, mostly (83%) through the local authorities. Owner occupation was 5%.
In the five years from 1976-1981 there were only 1,140 local authority, 167 housing association and two private sector dwellings built in the whole of Docklands.
The stock of dwellings in 1981 was 15,000. By March 1998 it was 38,000. Over 24,000 homes have been completed under the auspices of the LDDC. Of these some 17,700 were for owner occupation, 5,300 for housing associations and nearly 1,000 for local authorities.
To be completed this lesson or for homework:
Describe the problems facing London before the development of the Dockland area.
Explain the reasons for the decline of the docks and other industries in the area.
Describe the social, economic and environmental issues caused by the decline of the docks.
Outline the redevelopment strategies put in place by the LDDC
Were the changes effective? How do you know?
Has the redevelopment been successful at improving conditions for the wider area, or have the benefits been very localised? Give reasons for your ideas.
Ghost Town - The Specials
Recorded in 1981, this song depicts public feeling in London before the redevelopment. The video also gives a useful view of what it was like.
You should read through the information in the Prezi carefully. Either use the controls to navigate through the sections in the set order, or explore at your will by scrolling around and zooming in and out. There are a few extra bits dotted around that don't appear in the navigated route. Use additional internet research to help you answer the questions where necessary.